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ANTH 1001March 29

ANTH 1001March 29 - ANTH 1001 EXAM#3 Miocene Fossils...

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ANTH 1001 EXAM #3 March 29, 2010 Miocene Fossils Sahelanthropus tchadensis o Nearly complete skull that has ape like features but it also shows some evidence for bipedality ( location of forgamanum) o Found in Central Africa- its unexpected so significant o Date: 6-7 million old; oldest possible hominid that we have identified; makes it in our lineage Miocene/ Pliocene Fossils Orrorin tugenesis o Multiple individuals represented with post cranial fragments but also some teeth o Some evidence for bipedality o Remains different from sah…. And don’t know how they are related o Because of bipedality determine must be related to hominid Ardipithecus ramidus o Small brained hominid that shows evidence for a “type” of bipedality; has mix of skeletal qualities o Has evidence for being able to move capably through the trees o And of bipedality o Because of mix of features and dates is a possible last common ancestor (LCA) between African apes and humans; and if it is it falsifies the idea that the LCA was like a chimpanzee Pliocene Fossils Kenyanthropus platyops o Nearly complete skull that shows more derived features than other contemporaneous (living at the same time) species o Makes this one a better candidate for a human ancestor than the other contemporaneous; has enormous implications Australopithecus Afarensis (3.9-3.0 mya) o “Lucy” (AL-288-1)*** - Very famous - Australopithecus Afarensis - Completeness of her skeleton- almost 40% - Dated to 3.3-3.6 million years old - Evidences that her skeleton showed for BIPED - Pelvis, bicondulyar angle, type of bipedialism o Southern ape from Afar region o Small brained o Post orbital constriction o Some show small sagital crest o Large super orbital tor… o U-shaped ventition o Relatively large canines compared to cheek teeth
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o Pretty big nuchial crest o Post cranial remains that show evidence for bipedalism o Bicondular angle o No opposable toe; in line big toe o 3 ½ to 4 ft tall o About 120 individuals o “Selam” - Relatively recently found - About 3.3 mya - Found in Ethiopia - Oldest hominid child found - About 60% complete - Australopithecus Afar… - Child died around 3 years old - Able to make growth and development - Compare other child fossil; also to chimps and orangutans; and other adult fossils o Laetoli - A site - In East Africa, Tanzania - Footprints founds show same characteristics as modern bipeds* - Almost 80 ft of footprints - 3.5mya about * - Australopithecus Afarensis* (attributed but not positive) - Shows evidence of bipedality* - Apparent weight distributed, toes in line o Africanus (3-2mya) - Endocast- solid impression of the inside of a skull; will preserve details of the size and shape of the brain - Taung- fossil AA Apelike features Evidence of bipedality Evidence of apelike features Believed to be around a 3 year old South Africa** difference to salem child - 3 to 4 year old child skull from brain was tall and round - Biped indicated of FM - Small brain - Some have small sagital crest
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ANTH 1001March 29 - ANTH 1001 EXAM#3 Miocene Fossils...

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