BIOL 1001test2

BIOL 1001test2 - BIOL 1001 How do substances move across...

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BIOL 1001 Feb.10 How do substances move across membranes? Transport Processes 1. Passive transport : movement down concentration gradient; no E(energy) required a. Simple diffusion : goes across membrane without help; goes from high to low concentration b. Facilitated diffusion : goes across membrane with help c. Osmosis : water moves through differentially permeable membrane Diffusion 1. All molecules constantly vibrating/ moving 2. Those in gas and liquid move randomly 3. Mixtures tend to become uniform ***Move from high concentration to low*** Diffusion of dye in water (fig. 4-2) Simple Diffusion (fig. 4-3a) - Some molecules such as CO 2 and O 2 diffuse freely across membrane Facilitated Diffusion Small charged molecules use channels. Ex.) Ions Large molecules use carriers Ex.) Amino Acids, sugars, small proteins Osmosis Diffusion of H 2 O across differentially permeable membrane The effects of Osmosis (fig. 4-5) - Hypertonic Solution- net movement of water out of cells - Hypotonic Solution- net movement of water into cells - Isotonic Solution- Equal movement of water into and out of cells BIOL 1001 Feb.12 Transport Processes: a. Active transport- movement via membrane –spanning proteins b. Endocytosis-move large particles in c. Exocytosis- move material out Endo and Exocytosis: 1. Like cell eating and pooping 2. Active processes for large groups of molecules a. Endocytosis- engulfmentn Endocytosis:
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Pinocytosis- take in extracellular fluids Receptor-mediated Endocytosis- protein receptors to take in specific nutrients Phagosytosis- engulfs food molecules and breaks them down Exocytosis: 2 phospolipid bilayers come together, excretes waste QUIZ: __________ can readily diffuse across a lipid bilayer a. Glucose b. Food particles c. CO 2 d. Insulin CHAPTER 5: Cell Structure and Function Cell Theory: 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells 2. Cells are a. Basic unit of structure b. Basic unit of function 3. All cells come from preexisting cells What are the basic features of all cells 1. Plasma membrane 2. DNA heredity blueprint 3. Cytoplasm 4. Obtain energy and nutrients from the environment 5. Cells are small BIOL 1001 Feb.19 What are features of Prokaryotic cells? 1. Smaller, 0.1-5 micro m 2. No organelles 3. No nucleus 4. DNA in circular loop 5. Bacteria and Archaea What are the features of Eukaryotic Cells? 1. Larger 8—100 micro m 2. Membranous organelles 3. Nucleus 4. DNA in linear chromosomes Examples: Single celled protists, and Multi-celled animals, plants, and fungi
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Quiz: What is the difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell? C. Prokaryotes don’t have nucleus; eukaryotes do The Nucleus Nucleolus- DNA, RNA, other enzymes located Chromosomes Nuclear envelope Ribosomes: the site of protein synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum: (ER): 1. Rough ER a. Contains ribosomes b. n\makes proteins and phospholipids c. synthesizes new membrane for ER 2. Smooth ER a. Involved in lipid synthesis, including phospholipids and cholesterol
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BIOL 1001test2 - BIOL 1001 How do substances move across...

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