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Unformatted text preview: Georgia Tech Library Reserves NOTICE This Material May be Protected by Copyright Law (Title 17 US. Code) INTA 2210B: Political Philosophies and Ideologies First Exam, Spring Semester 2010 12 February 2010 NOTE: Sign your name in the space above and, at the end of the exam, turn in the signed test- booklet together with --- but in a separate stack from -—~ your scantron sheet. PRINT your name, last name first, on the appropriate space on the front of the scantron answer sheet. Failure to [allow any at these instructions will result in an automatic deduction of ten points from your exam. 1. How are workers paid for their labor in More's Utopia? a. Wages are proportional to output. b. All workers receive the same wage. 0. Workers are not paid. d. There is a high minimum wage, boosted further by productivity bonuese. 2. How are goods priced in More's Utopia? a. The cost of production plus 15% profit b. Prices are determined by supply and demand. 0. They are set by the economic planners. d. They are given away free. 3. How is the division of labor determined in More's Utopia? a. Parents determined their children's professions. b. Children inherit their parent's professions. c. Men do one sort of labor, women another. d. Everyone has a specialized profession, plus does agricultural labor. 4. Who owns land, resources, and machinery in More's Utopia? a. the whole society b. private entrepreneurs c. the state (1. associations of workers labor unions 5. In More's Utopia, who determines what to produce, and how? a. Individual craftsmen according to their own artistic impulses b. the market Via supply and demand c. the economic planning committee d. associations of workers unions on the basis of last year's production 6. How are goods sold in More's Utopiail.7 a. They are not sold. b. by large retail stores c. via catalogue and mail order (1. by associations of workers unions. 7. How is the value of the currency in Utopia determined? a. by the economic planning committee b. It is pegged to a basket of foreign currencies. c. by the free operation of supply and demand. (I. It is not. 8. Which statement best characterizes the level of material equality in More‘s Utopia? a. Inequality is the result only of innovation and enterprise. b. Everyone has basically the same level of material wealth. c. There are rich and poor, but this is offset by redistribution efforts by the government. (1. The old exploiting class are kept poor, the workers rich. 9. What is the situation regarding crime in More‘s utopia? a. It was a serious problem until a new pay system was introduced. b. It is mainly a problem associated with recent immigrants. c. There is virtually none. d. It is kept in check by a system of family collective responsibility. 10. What is the most severe form of punishment in Utopia? a. expulsion from the island. b. death by hanging c. enslavement for a period of time d. monetary fines 11. According to the Declaration of the Rights of Man, what is the sole basis upon which distinctions among people can be based? a. ancient tradition b. majority will c. social factors beyond the control of the state d. the common utility 12. According to the Declaration of the Rights of Man, what is the purpose of "political association”? a. security b. the Glory of the Nation c. conservation of the rights to liberty, property, and safety d. preservation of ancient traditions 13. According to the Declaration of Rights of Man, where does sovereignty reside? a. God b. The People c. The Nation d. The Declaration does not speak of "sovereignty" 14. According to the Declaration of the Rights of Man, on what basis may the state forbid actions? a. The state may forbid actions harmful to society. b. Actions opposed by a solid majority of society may be forbidden. c. Individual liberty is absolute; it may not be restricted by the state. d. The state may forbid actions that Violate the ancient traditions of a society. 15. According to the Declaration of the Rights of Man, property: a. Is permitted by the state under conditions benefiting the whole people. b. May be established and protected by law duly approved by a majority. c. Property is not mentioned in the Declaration. d. is a "inviolable and sacred right." 16. When and where was the Declaration of the Rights of Man issued? a. 1776, The United States b. 1789, France c. 1688, England d. 1848, France 17. What was the context in which the Declaration of the Rights of Man was issued? a. The American revolution against Britain. b. The great French revolution. c. The Glorious Revolution over throwing the restored Stuart monarchy in England. d. Wide spread uprisings in the industrial centers of France in the throes of the industrial revolution. 18. Which statement best captures the meaning of "property a. Physical possession of, or control over, something. b. Possession based on ancient traditions. c. Possession based on inheritance. d. A normative system affirming a particular person's right to dispose of something. 19. What was the form of "ownership" of land and other resources prevalent through most of the human existence on earth? a. There was no "ownership,“ possession was based primarily on physical strength. b. No one owned these things. 0. People moved frequently . d. All the above are true. 20. What was the activity driving the development of market-based economic activity in early modern Europe (e. g., circa 15th century)? a. long distance, sea-borne trade b. supply of armor and weapons for the Crusades c. construction of Christian cathedrals d. manufacture of goods in factories 21. What was the key industry around which early modern capitalism developed: a. industrial manufacturing b. governmental bureaucracy c. shipping and commerce (1. banking and finance 22. As cities began to emerge and grow, what was their main impact on the development of capitalism? a. They created a growing market for agricultural goods. b. They created the danger of revolution which necessitated growth of Absolutist monarchics. c. They migrated overseas, carrying industrial technologies with them. (1. They created a market for luxury goods. 23. A set of ideas used to justify and promote the interests of a particular group would be called: a. empirical political philosophy b. an ideology c. deconstructionism d. radical utilitarianism 24. Which of the following best captures the critical issue at the mid-19th century “fork in the road” of Liberal thinking? a. the desirable role of the state b. imperial expansion and the derivative question of war and peace c. poverty (1. popular sovereignty versus divine right of monarch 25. As presented in class lectures, contemporary European “social democracy" would be the philosophical equivalent which of the following in the United States? a. socialism b. Strict Constitutional constructivism c. Conservativism d. Liberalism 26. As presented in class lectures, contemporary European “Liberalism” would be equivalent which of the following in the United States? a. socialism b. Conservatism c. Liberalism d. radical environmentalism 27. As presented in class lectures, the contemporary U.S. heir to the Liberalism of John Locke and Adam Smith would be: a. Conservatism b. modern American Liberalism c. radical utilitarianism d. utopianism 28. Which of the following would be a characteristic of the Enlightenment? a. emphasis on reason as a facility capable of determining human behavior and the organization of human society b. emphasis on technological innovation as the engine of progress 0. emphasis on freeing man from external restraints, including the complusion to labor d. Emphasis on the relative and contingent nature of all propositions about "truth." 29. Which of the following propositions best characterizes post—Enlightenment philosophy? a. Justice is the will of the powerful. b. Human behavior is not fundamentally governed by reason. c. Justice is the collective will of the weak. (1. Truth is best determined by a market—place of ideas. 30. Who was Emile Durkheim? a. A French sociologist b. A Russian revolutionary leader 0. A German utopian thinker who pre-dated Karl Marx d. An English historian and sociologist 31. When did Emile Durkheim live? a. 1903-1972 b. 1653-1712 c. 1858-1917 (1. 1497-1546 32. According to Aristotle, who was a “citizen”? a. anyone born in the territory of the polis b. anyone granted rights by the polis c. anyone empowered hold public office (1. any property-owning, free male 33. Socrates was executed by: a. Greece’s most tyrannical political system b. Greece’s most democratic political system c. The commander of an invading Persian army d. a revolutionary regime dedicated to redistribution of wealth in society. 34. Why was Socrates executed? a. He challenged the divine right of kings. b. He advocated democratic self-government by citizens of the polity. c. He advocated redistribution of wealth. d. His questioning was undermining the religious belief of the youth. 35. When did Aristotle live? a. 752-703 BCE b. 206-273 CE c. 384-322 BCE d. About 1500 BCE 36. What was the core revolutionary (i.e. unique) breakthrough of the Greek Polis‘? a. conceiving a political community made up of politically empowered, self- governing, and equal citizens b. developing a powerful centralized state with specialized coercive bureaucracies (e. g. tax collectors, law enforcers, and soldiers). 0. Developing a symbiotic relation between state power and the market economy d. Emphasis on law 37. What was a “perverted" form of polis, according to Aristotle? a. violence and coercion were used as part of the ruling process b. the state was dedicated to military conquest and expansion 0. the voting process had become corrupted d. power was exercised in the interests of the rulers 38. What was “freedom” according to Aristotle? a. religious freedom was the primary freedom, according to Aristotle b. the ability to participate in the life of the polis as a citizen c. the ability to be free from the arbitrary exercise of state power (1. the ability to engage in self-interested, profit-seeking activity 39. What is the Latin equivalent of the Greek term “polis”? a. jus natura b. lex natura c. civitas d. res publica 40. According to classic Greek philosophy, citizens of a polis should, in their role as citizens, pursue: 3. their own logically-considered self-interest b. traditional Greek values as embedded in religion c. the common good (1. whatever reason indicated was appropriate in a particular situation 41. In the Old Testament Exodus story, what happens to the Hebrews immediately once they escape slavery in the land of Egypt? a. They organize a system of government. b. They build an idol and start worshiping it. c. They discover that they now have no masters to supply them with food. d. They revolt against Moses. 41. In th‘e‘fil‘c‘lH Testament Exodus story, what happens to the Hebrews once they escape from slavery in e land of Egypt? a. They realiE‘eQiftt freedpr/n is too risky and voluntarily abandon it. b. They voluntarMbordinate themselves to Law. t their security requires a strong leader and select Moses as their d. They roceed to conquer the Promised Land. 42. What is the central proposition of the point referred to in the previous question? a. More disciplined, authoritarian states are more capable of self-defense. b. People naturally require someone to rule over them, to guide and control them. c. Freedom requires that people voluntarily regulate and control themselves. (:1. God gave the Promised Land to His People. 10 43. Which statement best captures the significance of the Old Testament Exodus story --- at least in the view of the professor? 3. Religion forms an important basis of all political arrangements. b. J udeo-Christianity is the best religious tradition. c. The Hebrew and the Greek traditions were Virtually identical. (1. Freedom does not mean doing whatever you want. 44. Which of the following is NOT true regarding “freedom” in the Old Testament Exodus story a. b. c. d. c. This was the first story in human history about the quest for freedom. God’s conferring of freedom on the Hebrews was a great blessing, and a major reason why they should obey God’s will. Freedom requires voluntary submission to higher moral law. The exercise of freedom does not necessarily confer wealth and prosperity. All of the above are important aspects of the Exodus story. 45. Where was the earliest use of the word “freedom” in human civilization? a. b. C. d. Egypt circa 3000 BCE. Southern Mesopotamia circa 3500 BCE. Greece circa 500 BCE. Northern Italy circa 1500 CE. 46. What was the meaning of the term referred to in the previous question (the first use of the term “freedom” in the human record)? a. b. G111 at“ ’4 to crush one’s enemies to submit to the will of the Gods atevero ' 47. Where do individual rights come from, according to Locke? a. b. C. Majority decision by the members of a commonwealth Debate and consensus among the members of a community From the God that created nature 11 48. 49. 50. d. From the particular traditions and culture of a people Which statement best characterizes John Locke's state of nature? a. Constant fear, insecurity, and violence. b. Reasonably tolerant and restrained people working and living together fairly harmoniously. c. A natural democracy based on families. d. The Indian peoples discovered by European explorers in the Western Hemisphere. What was John Locke's solution to ”the Hobbsian dilemma"? a. Allowing the "invisible hand" to regulate individual activity b. A written constitution and independent judiciary c. People understand through reasoning that they will be more secure in their own rights if they respect the rights of others. d. An international division of labor and comparative advantage. According to Locke’s Second Treatise, “tyranny” is: a. One-party rule. b. The divine right of Kings. c. Characteristic of the state of nature. d. The exercise of power beyond right. 12 ...
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