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General Psych 2 - Fraternal and Identical twins by studying...

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Fraternal and Identical twins – by studying twins, behavioral geneticists may disentangle the contributions of heredity and environment to behavior; research into hereditary influence comparing pairs of fraternal and identical twins; fraternal twins share ½ as many genes as identical twins (50% to 100%) so if a trait is genetically influenced, identical twins will be more similar in that trait than fraternal twins. Central nervous system – the nervous system is divided into 2 main parts, the CNS is the part of the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal cord - The peripheral nervous system is the part that comprises all the nerve cells in the body outside the central nervous system. Includes the somatic and autonomic nervous systems Autonomic nervous systems – part of the peripheral nervous system, the ANA serves the involuntary systems of the body; all the nerves of the peripheral nervous system that serve involuntary systems of the body, such as the internal organs and glands; it has 2 main branches: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system – a branch of the autonomic nervous system (and thus the peripheral), the sympathetic nervous system is the branch that activates bodily systems in times of emergency; responsible for the fight-or-flight response; increases heart rate, dilates pupils, inhibits digestion, relaxes bronchi so more air gets to lungs, contracts blood vessels (BP increases), prevents bladder from contracting, allows blood flow to sex organs Axons – a long projection that extends from a neuron’s soma; it transmits electrical impulses toward the adjacent neuron and stimulates the release of neurotransmitters Dendrites – fingerlike projections from a neuron’s soma that receive incoming messages from other neurons Myelinated axons – some axons are enwrapped in a myelin sheath or fatty substance which insulates the axon, making the nerve impulse travel more efficiently Action potential – first phase of neural transmission, the positively charged impulse that moves down an axon - The charge difference between ions present inside and outside the neuron is called potential.
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