General Psych 3

General Psych 3 - General Psych Zygote the single cell that...

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General Psych Zygote – the single cell that results when a sperm fertilizes an egg Teratogen – substances that can disrupt normal prenatal development and cause lifelong deficits; these include viruses (measles, flu), alcohol, nicotine, prescription drugs (antidepressants), and radiation; timing determines how detrimental the effects of any given teratogen will be; generally, the earlier in the pregnancy the woman is exposed, the more detrimental the effects Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder – a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure that causes multiple problems, notably brain damage and mental retardation; causes damage to the central nervous system, a low birth weight, physical abnormalities (face, head, heart, joints), mental retardation, and behavioral problems; described as a spectrum of disorders because the type and degrees of deficits can vary among individuals; affects about 1% of live births in the US and is the leading cause of mental retardation in the country Jean Piaget – addressed the question “what are the principles of cognitive development from birth throughout childhood?”; relied primarily on observations of his own 3 children; outlined 4 phases of cognitive development from birth through adolescence, which he called the sensorimotor, preoperartioinal, concrete operational, and formal operational stages Object Permanence – the ability to realize that objects still exist when they are not being sensed; Piaget noticed that during the first 8-9 months (during the sensorimotor stage) the child lacks object permanence but around 9 months, he/she will begin to form it Egocentric – preoperational children of ages between 2-6 view the world from one’s own perspective and are not capable of seeing things from another person’s perspective Preoperational stage – the second major stage of cognitive development (ages 2-5) which begins with the emergence of symbolic thought (using symbols such as words or letters to represent ideas or objects); other qualities of include animistic thinking (the idea the inanimate objects are alive), egocentrism, and lack of conservation Conservation – recognition that when some properties (such as shape) of an object change, other properties (such as volume) remain constant; during preoperational thinking, the child cannot recognize that amounts stay the same when shapes change (includes liquid, mass, number, length); children don’t realize that the quantity of something doesn’t change if it is rearranged Moral development – Kohlberg studied the development of moral reasoning in children and adults by
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Sabin during the Fall '09 term at Saint Louis.

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General Psych 3 - General Psych Zygote the single cell that...

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