Philosophy Exam 3 Study Guide

Philosophy Exam 3 Study Guide - Third Exam Study Guide...

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Third Exam Study Guide *Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book I 1.) What is the ultimate good (also the ultimate telos or end) of human beings, according to their nature as a certain kind of creature? Explain the relationship of the ultimate end to intermediate ends with respect to motivation. (7 points). Happiness and human flourishing is the ultimate end of human beings. Mere means – credit, major, graduate degree, job, money Ends – family, friends, recreation, pleasure Final end – human flourishing/being happy Many people are pursuing mere means as their final end, but won’t be happy in the end 2.) Explain the ‘Function Argument,’ which defines the function of human beings. Human is rational animal. Anything that exists has a function. The function of human beings is to have rationality (?) “The activity of the soul in conformity of virtue.” So, the constant exercising of intellect to be intellectual throughout their entire life, cannot just be virtuous once, it has to be done multiple times and exercising multiple virtues. Firefighter can pick which virtue he needs in order to save people from a building. Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book II 3.) *What is Aristotle’s definition of a virtue? What further conditions must acts, which originate from a virtuous character, also fulfill in order to be completely virtuous? Aristotle defines virtue as a good habit Virtues are developed as an imitation of a virtuous role model, such as parents. Intellect – underdeveloped brains of children don’t know what’s good for them or that they need to make choices Will – Appetite – Desires need to be trained to perceive the actual good as good, and then desire it
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To be completely virtuous – Firefighter has to show up at the right time, stay the right amount of time, posses everything he needs to fight it (the other nine categories are necessary to ensure that it is completely virtuous) To be prudent – to have practical wisdom is to know how to and when to apply your virtue, must practice the virtue. Moral virtues – through upbringing Intellectual virtues – have to be thought about to know how to apply them 4.) Be able to draw a small chart illustrating several virtues and their corresponding vices, according to Aristotle’s three-part schema. Courage, cowardice, recklessness Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book III 5.) How must acts be done, according to Aristotle, in order for someone to be morally responsible for them? What does he mean by his distinction between involuntary and non-voluntary actions and acts done ‘in ignorance’ and ‘through ignorance,’
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2011 for the course PHILOSOPHY 105 taught by Professor Heter during the Spring '08 term at Saint Louis.

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Philosophy Exam 3 Study Guide - Third Exam Study Guide...

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