Second Exam Study Guide Plato’s Republic Book I 1.) What is the first definition offered for the concept in question, and what counter-example does Socrates provide against it? (331c-e). a. Question: What is JUSTICE? b. Cephalus responds, “ Justice is telling the truth and paying one’s debts ” c. Socrates asked if he would give a crazy man a weapon if he asked for it? i. There’s more to truth than an exchange of physical goods ii. Telling the truth: Jews in WWII, 1. Lying is a lesser evil sometimes when the truth will cause harm. 2.) What is the second definition offered for the concept in question, which is further qualified by an appeal to the status between the subject and their relationships, and what counter-example does Socrates provide against it? a. Cephalus’ son responds (Polemarchus) and quotes poet Simonides i. Justice is “giving all persons their due” ii. Who deserves what? Helping friends and hurting enemies b. Socrates then talks about BETRAYAL: i. What if a friend betrays you? Then what? No one knows for certain who their friends and enemies are. Always a possibility of deception. 1. You could harm someone who you think is your enemy but is really your friend 2. You could help someone who you think is your friend but is really your enemy c. Socrates brings up the craft analogy i. Soul has intellect, will and appetite. 1. If person is lacking justice, no amount of intellect will insure that they will do the right thing, if they have the will and appetite to do unjust things a. EX: Hannibal Lector as chef would not be just
3.) What is Socrates’ position on retributive harms, and what argument does he provide from the nature and end of a thing, using the example of a racehorse? What is Thrasymachus’ contrary view concerning the definition of the concept that is at the heart of this dialogue and what are some of Socrates’ arguments against this view? (name at least one). Retributive Harms are revenge and retaliation. Socrates doesn’t think they’ll get you anywhere, as can be seen with the example of the racehorse: TECHNE ARETE TELOS Horse racing Speed, agility Win the race! Society A retributive harm Justice! Ship captain Megalomania (taking advantage of the other workers) Ship docks safely! If the horse has a broken leg, he will not have speed and agility therefore he will not win the race! The retributive harm WILL NOT achieve justice in a society because everyone will be going against each other! Thrasymachus says that “justice is the advantage of the strongest” or MIGHT MAKES RIGHT! (Whoever has the power gets their way)-Socrates uses the example of the ship captain (above) and says that if the ship captain abuses his power and takes advantage of the other workers, there is no way that the ship will dock safely, it won’t sail for long if people aren’t doing what they should be. Plato’s
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