PHIL 105 - Midterm Study Guide The following is a list of...

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Midterm Study Guide The following is a list of topics that you should be familiar with for the upcoming Midterm. NOTE: The exam questions will be drawn from the topics on this study guide. However, just because a topic is on the study guide does not necessarily mean that it will be on the exam, but there will be NO question on the exam that was not drawn from the topics on the study guide. What is the definition of philosophy that is being employed for this course? What are the two Greek words from which philosophy is derived and what are their meanings? - Philosophy: systematic quest for truth via rational inquiry for the sake of wisdom - Philein- to love Sophia- wisdom - Literally means to love wisdom Which philosopher wrote which works? o Examples : “The Value of Philosophy” (Bertrand Russell) “The Allegory of the Cave” (Plato), the Categories (Aristotle). - Plato: The Allegory of the Cave, The Analogy of the Divided Line Bertrand Russell- The Value of Philsophy Gettier- Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? Descartes- The First Meditation Aristotle- Metaphysics What are the four primary branches of philosophy and what are they concerned with? - Logic: study of principles of reason and proper argumentation, asks questions such as what makes an argument valid or invalid? what is a convincing argument? - Epistemology: study of knowledge, asks questions like what is knowledge? How is knowledge attained? How can we be sure that we actually know what we claim to know? - Metaphysics: study of reality, asks questions such as what is the fundamental nature of reality? Is reality made up of one kind of thing or various kinds of things? Is there a God? What is the mind? - Ethics: study of right and good with regards to human action. Asks questions like what is right and good? Is the right action determined by consequences or the nature of the act itself? What does it mean to say that truth is objective? - A statement is true if and only if the statement corresponds to facts (the way the world is) How do necessary, impossible, and contingent statements differ? - Necessary statements: S is true and can NOT be false ( all bachelors are unmarried males, all cats are mammals) - Impossible statements: S is false and can NOT be true ( cats are dogs, circles are squares) - Contingent statements: S is true but might have been false OR S is false but might have been true ( Josh is six feet tall, Bob Dylan is not a musician) What is the difference between a posteriori and a priori knowledge? - A Priori knowledge- about things that are knowable before- or independent of experience ( my teacher says the grass is green or the sky is blue) - A Posteriori- about that things that are Knowable only from experience ( the stove is hot) What is meant by rationalism/empiricism? How would you characterize the primary philosophers that we have examined thus far (Plato, Aristotle, Descartes)? -
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2011 for the course PHILOSOPHY 105 taught by Professor Heter during the Spring '08 term at Saint Louis.

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PHIL 105 - Midterm Study Guide The following is a list of...

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