biology review

biology review - Lecture 1: Science Goal of science...

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Lecture 1: Science Method used to uncover and provisionally explain observations about the world Goal of science To understand general principles underlying the functioning of the universe Scientific Method - observation of phenomena - formulations of generalizations - hypotheses - testing What two things is the scientific method based on? 1 – A naturalistic explanation is sufficient to account for the functioning of the universe 2 – The universe can be understood through logic and rational thinking Plato Year - 2400 BP What did he believe? Every organism is an essence or type created by God Did he believe that they changed? No – he believed they did not change over time What was his line of thinking? Typological thinking variation within species should be ignored. Variation within species is not important Aristotle Year - 2350 BP What did he propose? That species were organized into a sequence based on increased size and complexity, with humans at the top. Did he believe in typological thinking? Yes Lamark What is significant about him? He was the first to propose evolution
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Points of Lamark’s theory Formulated the doctrine of transformism and did not include extinction into his theory – he said that organisms didn’t go extinct, they rather just changed forms How did he believe lineages changed? Internal forces (nervous fluid) Inheritance of acquired characteristics Transformism Organisms change from one form to another According to Lamarck’s transformation evolution, individuals change…. And pass on… Individuals change over the course of their lifetimes and pass on acquired characteristics to their offspring Darwin Darin believed that variation among individuals within a population is the key to The key to understanding evolution Population - All individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time Why does evolution occur? Because individuals with certain heritable traits leave more offspring than others Natural selection - Individuals with certain heritable traits leave more offspring than others. Populations change over time Darwin’s Theory of Evolution… _____ evolution ______ change over time ______ descent ______ ______ _______ Variational Evolution (populational change) Characteristics of lineages change over time Common descent Gradualism Natural Selection Natural selection on variation within lineages leads to… The evolution of adaptations Mendel Mendel’s theory of …. Explained how Inheritance
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variation can be passed form one individual to its offspring Law of Segregation Two alleles of each gene segregate in the gametes Independent assortment Alleles of difference genes are transmitted independently of one another How does variation originate? Mutations that confer an advantage to an individual become more common in the population Modern synthesis of evolution = Darwin/Wallace + Mendel + mutation theory Evolution Changes in frequencies of alleles in a population Variation arises from Mutation
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biology review - Lecture 1: Science Goal of science...

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