CH 36 Plant form and function

CH 36 Plant form and function - CH 36 Plant form and...

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CH 36 Plant form and function Types of Plant Cells 1. Parenchyma a. Least thick b. Non lignified c. Alive at maturity d. Totipotent e. Uses: Photosynthesis, starch storage, wound healing, used in asexual reproduction: rhizomes, stolons, callus, transport of sugars and amino acids in the phloem, found in all parts of the plant 2. Collenchyma a. Unevenly thickened b. Non lignified c. Alive at maturity d. Uses: supports young organs: stems, leaves, stalks, strength and protection 3. Sclerenchyma a. Primary and lignified in secondary walls b. Occur singly, small clusters, and masses c. Dead at maturity d. Uses: support and strength: fibers, sclerids found in seed coats, grittiness in pears, water transport- tracheids and vessel Plant Tissues 1. Ground a. Makes us bulk of plant, functions include photosynthesis, and storage parenchyma is main type 2. Dermal a. Outer layer of plant, one cell layer thick, specialized cells include guard cells, epidermal, trichomes (branched, glandular, simple), protects, minimizes water loss 3. Vascular a. Conducting tissues: makes up the veins of the plant b. Phloem-parenchyma, sieve tube members are the actual conducting cells but lack nuclei and organelles, companion cells maintain the sieve tube members c. Xylem-sclernenchyma, specialized sclerenchyma cells, dead at maturity, have lignon, tracheids have pits and vessels have pits and preforations Plant Types 1. Monocots a. Fibrous roots b. Veins scattered in the stems c. Venation parallel d. Herbaceous 2. Eudicots
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a. Tap roots b. Veins form ring in stem c. Venation is net like d. Herbaceous or woody Parts of Plant 1. Roots a. Vascular tissue forms red x in the center due to sclerenchyma in xylem b. Two types of roots: fibrous and tap c. Different lengths of roots eliminate some competition d. Phentotypically plasticity- the capacity of an organism to vary as a result of environmental fluctuations e. Root hair- singles cell per hair, expands surface area for nutrient absorption f. Prop roots-support g. Snorkel roots-exchange gas h. Pneumatophores- exchange gas w/ environment i. Root modifications: carrots, beets, turnips, radishes 2. Stems a. Support and conduction b. Water and minerals- roots to leaves c. Food- site of production to sites of use and storage d. Nodes are where leaves attach to stems, internodes are spaces between e. Stems are phenotypically plastic f. Monocot stem- veins scattered, eudicot- veins form a ring g. Woody stem- inner circle is xylem, outer circle is phloem h. Stem modifications: water storage in stems, stolons grow laterally, rhizomes are underground lateral stems, tubers are underground storage, thorns 3. Leaves a. Primary function is photosynthesis b. Simple leaf- petiole with one blade c. Compound leaf- blade divided into leaflets with one petiole d. Pinnately compound-long pin like with different nodes
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2011 for the course BIOL 106 taught by Professor Allisonmiller during the Spring '11 term at Saint Louis.

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CH 36 Plant form and function - CH 36 Plant form and...

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