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NOTES-Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Transcription and Translation...

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Chapter 16: Transcription and Translation Transcription: where DNA is converted into mRNA. In prokaryotes occurs in cytoplasm. In eukaryotes, occurs in nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Translation: mRNA is translated into amino acid sequences. Occurs in small ribosomes in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes occurs in large ribosomes in cytoplasm or on rough ER or in mitochondria or chloroplasts. RNA polymerase contains sigma part and core enzyme Transcription in Bacteria: o Sigma protein recognizes promoter and binds to the promoter. It more specifically binds to conserved sequences or boxes. All prokaryotic cells have these boxes. o RNA polymerase initiates transcription. RNA polymerase un base pairs and continues until it reaches the termination sequence which tell it it’s the end of the chain. o Transcription is in the 5’ to 3’ direction. o How transcription begins: Initiation begins Sigma binds to promoter region of DNA Initiation continues Sigma opens the DNA helix; transcription begins Initiation is complete Sigma releases; mRNA synthesis continues. Transcription in Eucaryotes o Three different types of RNA polymerase: RNA Polymerase I-rRNA RNA Polymerase II-mRNA RNA Polymerase III-tRNA o More complex Promoters with a TATA box which helps initiate and promote transcription o
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