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NOTES-Chapter 43 - Chapter 43 Animal Nutrition Animals eat...

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Chapter 43: Animal Nutrition Animals eat for four reasons o To gain energy to generate ATP o To gain carbon and other elements to build their bones o To acquire essential organic compounds that the organism can’t synthesize itself o To acquire inorganic elements to use as electrolytes or for incorporation into organic compounds Basic Nutritional Needs o Carbohydrates, fats, proteins for sources of carbon and to generate ATP energy o Essential amino acids- 9 of the 21 amino acids are essential and animals can’t synthesize them o Essential fatty acids-many animals, mammals included, can’t synthesize 2 essential fatty acids = linoleic acid and linolenic acid o Essential vitamins- these are usually required in small amounts. Plants can synthesize these. o Essential elements: acquired in the food we eat, but also in the water we drink Obtaining food o There is huge variability in how animals obtain food. There are filter feeders, grazers, browsers, predators, parasites, gatherers o How much time do animals spend obtaining food. More than 50%. Humans less than 10%. o Many of the adaptations that animals possess are related to obtaining and processing food and avoiding becoming food (predation). There are major selective forces operating here o 4 types of teeth- incisors, canines, premolars, molars herbivores-grind food carnivores-don’t grind as much o Form and function go together Herbivores have long complex digestive systems adapted for processing plant material Carnivores have short digestive systems Tract and Digestion in an Omnivorous Mammal-male o Mouth Teeth chew food into small particles to increase surface area. Water is added from the salivary glands. Mucins from salivary glands make food slippery for easy transport Amylase from salivary glands converts amylose starch into the disaccharide maltose
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