midterm2review

midterm2review - OceanographyMidtermIIReview...

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Oceanography Midterm II Review 10/03/2010 21:26:00 What is wind Air moving from high pressure to low pressure Main gases of atmosphere Nitrogen, oxygen, CO2, argon CO2 main greenhouse gas, has been increasing since industrial revolution Methane is another greenhouse gas CO2 is increasing because polar ice caps are melting Ozone layer Layer in atmosphere composed of O3, keeps atmosphere warm, where CO2 gases are trapped Where energy from the sun is mainly absorbed Global heat budget Way energy is distributed throughout the earth Local heat budget At different latitudes energy input≠ energy output o Ex: at equator: input>output; Polar regions: output>input; At temperate regions, depends on seasons Thermal equilibrium Energy input=energy output Energy comes from sun, absorbed in water, plants, atmosphere, some is reflected back Greenhouse effect A warming of the atmosphere below the ozone layer, keeps the earths temp higher, naturally occurring phenomonon, need it bc w/o we would fry during day and freeze at night
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High and low pressure areas Be able to explain in short answer how ocean and atmospheric circulation affects climate Start from equator and move to north or south pole At equator, there is a low pressure system which means there is a high temp, high precipitation, tradewinds formed at the equator go from east to west and pick up water vapor as they move, at 30º latitude western sides of ocean basins, high pressure systems, really hot, no precipitation. On one side of ocean basin we have desert, on the other side we have tropical climate o Ex: caribbean-tropical o Monsoons- in pacific o Horse latitudes at 30º o At 60º latitude –polar front. Low pressure, 2 confronting winds. One goes from east to west, other goes from west to east. If westerlies stronger than easterlies, polar front moves north, so we have milder winters. If easterlies stronger than westerlies, polar front moves south, so we have colder winters. o At 40º latitude south, westerlies move continuously, very big waves o Great conveyor belt- moves bc of temperature and salinity differences. Brings gulf stream to northern regions Atmospheric circulation cells: hadley, ferrell, polar Coriolis effect Deflection of winds due to rotation of the earth In northern hemisphere winds go to right In southern hemisphere winds go to left Horse latitudes Trade winds Winds that blow from east to west around the equator Polar front 60º latitude where there are 2 confronting winds
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Hurricanes Form in the north atlantic and now in south atlantic because of global warming Typhoons Hurricanes formed in the Pacific Causes of ocean circulation Ocean circulates due to primary and secondary forces on gyres Primary and secondary forces o Primary forces: thermal expansion of equator and wind patterns (trade winds) o Secondary forces: continents, gyrostrophic hill formed in middle of gyre
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midterm2review - OceanographyMidtermIIReview...

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