geology_34 - Chapter 14 Energy Resources cont...

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Chapter 14: Energy Resources cont. Classification of coal: Based on carbon content and calorific value on combustion Lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, anthracite With the increase in rank, generally higher carbon content, higher calorific values, less volatile gas, and less moisture content Based on sulfur content : low (< 1%) medium (1–3%) high (> 3%) Coal distribution and consumption: World reserves: about 1000 BMT (billion metric tons) Relatively evenly distributed throughout the world U.S. reserves: 25% of the world reserves Annual global consumption 5 BMT China, U.S., and Russia account for 50% of total CO2 released Environmental impact of coal: Land disturbances from open-pit mining Mining area acid drainage Subsidence over subsurface mines Surface water and groundwater pollution Air pollution from thermoelectric power plant Disposal of coal ash (5–20% of original coal) Area ecosystem degradation due to mining practice and afterward inadequate land reclamation
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