geology_12 - Chapter 5: Earthquakes Earthquakes: Violent...

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Chapter 5: Earthquakes Earthquakes: Violent ground-shaking phenomenon by the sudden release of strain energy stored in rocks One of the most catastrophic and devastating hazards Globally, most earthquakes are concentrated along plate boundaries USGS estimated about 1 million quakes annually Millions of people killed and billions of dollars in damage by catastrophic earthquakes Plate boundary and earthquakes: Most earthquakes concentrated along plate boundaries, and nearly all catastrophic earthquakes are shallow earthquakes Divergent plate boundary: Shallow earthquakes Transform plate boundary: Shallow to intermediate earthquakes Convergent plate boundary: Wide zone of shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquakes; 80% of seismic energy released along the earthquake zone around the Pacific rim. Causes for earhquakes: Stress and strain Stress: A force exerted per unit area within rocks or other Earth materials Strain: Deformation (size, shape, and orientation) of rock materials caused by
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2011 for the course GEOL 2001 taught by Professor Babaie during the Winter '09 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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geology_12 - Chapter 5: Earthquakes Earthquakes: Violent...

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