Lecture_15-2 - across time Songs are divided into...

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Songbirds and non-songbirds also differ in the complexity of syringeal musculature. Quality and purity of vocalizations are determined by the size of the oropharyngeal cavity and the esophagus. This acts to “perfect” the sound before it leaves the bird. (CARDINAL SYRINX VIDEO EXAMPLE) Dual sound source theory – because the syrinx is located at the juncture of two bronchi, birds have independent control of left and right sides of syrinx. (WOOD THRUSH EXAMPLE) Superfast musculature – an adaptation in ring doves – produces the cooo sound. This may be used by other species, but is yet unstudied. Birds use these methods to produce many song types. Often have more than one song verson. Each version called a song type. Collection of song types = repertoire Song can be visually depicted using a sonograph/sonogram – plot of frequency
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Unformatted text preview: across time Songs are divided into individual parts: Elements smallest part individual sounds Syllables Groups of elements Phrases groups of syllables There are also examples of different sound types: a. Short whistle of constant pitch b. Whistle that starts at high frequency and drops to a lower one frequency modulated c&d. Slow or fast vibrato (also called a trill) e. click short burst of white noise f. buzzing sound g. chirp h. multiples of the fundamental frequency (harmonics) sound like a gruff barking sound. Songs involve putting many of these elements together (WHITE THROATED SPARROW, EASTERN TOWHEE & WINTER WREN EXAMPLES) Songs are initially produced in the brain. Nuclei masses of neural cell bodies in the brain or the spinal cord...
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Lecture_15-2 - across time Songs are divided into...

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