Tylor, Morgan, Durkheim

Tylor, Morgan, Durkheim - Edward Tylor, Henry Lewis Morgan,...

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Unformatted text preview: Edward Tylor, Henry Lewis Morgan, and Emile Durkheim The frst anthropologists Friday, January 21, 2011 Edward Tylor British 1832-1917 Formulated a good/working defnition o culture Friday, January 21, 2011 Durkheim and Morgan Friday, January 21, 2011 Moores introduction ...it is not that earlier scholars were unaware of cultural differences, but rather that they lacked the slightest clue as to how cultural differences might be scientiFcally explained (Moore 16). Friday, January 21, 2011 Armchair anthropology European intellectual reading the travel accounts or collecting cultural items of missionaries, explorers, traders, etc. taken from their travels in throughout the world Emphasis on a comparative method - group x does this and group y does that James George Frazers The Golden Bough (1890) Friday, January 21, 2011 The Golden Bough James George Frazers The Golden Bough (1890) A chronicle of magical and religious beliefs throughout the globe Puts forward the position that human thought/belief progresses through three stages: 1) primitive magic, 2) replaced by religion, and 3) in turn replaced by science Friday, January 21, 2011 Terminology Progress Stages Independent invention - Morgan Diffused } The stages of cultural evolution - each human group must pass systematically through the stages } Different groups learned from one another, cultural traits spread (diffused) Friday, January 21, 2011 Cultural Evolutionism/Developmentalism Societies move from simple to complex Heavily inFuenced by Darwin (and Herbert Spencer) An idea that did not last very long as relevant or accurate Unilineal model Friday, January 21, 2011 Friday, January 21, 2011 Tylors defnition oF culture Culture or Civilization in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (1871). Friday, January 21, 2011 Primitive Culture (1871) Friday, January 21, 2011 Tylor's assessment of "primitive peoples" was not that they were degenerate but that they were stations along the way to fully-realized progress . They shared the same natural endowments as civilized people, and their forms of thought were reasonable and intelligible. He saw anthropology as the "reformer's science" and much of his career was spent combating what he saw as prejudice. Friday, January 21, 2011 Friday, January 21, 2011 Evolutionism: The propositions that societal survival depends on progressive differentiation into increasingly complex forms. Fluctuations in environment require appearance, selection for, and integration of new ideas and behaviors....
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2011 for the course ANTH 152 taught by Professor Cooper,n during the Spring '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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Tylor, Morgan, Durkheim - Edward Tylor, Henry Lewis Morgan,...

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