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Unformatted text preview: Babies at Risk Babies Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Large for Dates Babies What Can Go Wrong? What
This lecture will present a brief overview of the more common problems for babies born too soon, too small, too large, or with too many siblings sharing the womb. We will look at causes and consequences of these problems and compare the USA and worldwide statistics. The earlier and smaller a baby is, the higher the risk of death, brain damage, and developmental problems. Preterm Babies (Preemies) Preterm
Infants born 35 or fewer weeks after conception. 12.3 percent of all births in the USA are preterm. African American and Hispanic infants are twice as likely as Caucasian infants to be born preterm in the USA. Women under 15 and over 44 are most at risk for delivering preterm babies. Consequences of Preterm Birth Consequences Complications of preterm birth are often fatal. In the USA, 500,000 babies die each year from these complications. Worldwide, 2 million babies die from complications of preterm birth. Scientists are looking for the reasons why this statistic remains so high. Equipment for Survival Equipment
Many parents are frightened by all the tubes and equipment needed by preterm infants for survival. This drawing explains the function of the equipment commonly used. 34 Week Preterm Infant in ICU 34
What is happening? A 34 week preemie in the NICU with an IV, feeding tube in his mouth, and nasal CPAP to help him breath well. . ? Why is the USA Experiencing an
Increase in Preterm Births Increase
Increase in multiple births due to the success of infertility treatments. Increase in women over 35 bearing children. Older women are more likely to have preterm births. Increased stress for pregnant women. Infections, especially of the lower genital tract. Adolescent pregnancy and poor nutrition. Low Birth Weight Low Birth weight is not a reliable indicator of gestational age. Low birth weight babies may be full term or preterm. Low birth weight or small for gestational age babies are at risk for many health problems. Low birth weight is considered less than 5.5 pounds at birth. Small for Dates Babies Small May be full term or preterm. Also called SGA (small for gestational age). Weight is below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered. Have more than a fourfold risk of infant death compared to normal weight babies. Causes of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight in Developed Countries Weight Smoking, drugs, and alcohol abuse by the mother. Poor maternal nutrition. Lack of prenatal care and education. Maternal age: too old or too young. Infections of the lower genital tract. Causes of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight in Developing Countries Weight Poor health and malnutrition of the mother. Diseases such as Malaria and HIV. Adolescent pregnancy. Lack of access to prenatal care. Environmental pollution. Multiple pregnancies too closely spaced. Consequences of Low Birth Weight Birth
Number and severity of health problems increases as birth weight decreases. A 3lb baby is more likely to have severe health problems than a 5 lb baby. Later learning problems and lower levels of achievement in reading and math. Brain injury or damage, especially for extremely low birth weights of 2 lbs and less. Multiples: Twins, Triplets, Quads Quads Multiples such as the twins in the photo at left, must share the environment ofthe womb. They also relate to each other; pushing and cuddling. Multiples are likely to be born small and preterm. Multiples usually need special care. Intrauterine Growth Retardation Intrauterine IGR results when there is not enough nutrients and oxygen from the placenta getting to the fetus. Causes include: Placental infections. Maternal disease, including high blood pressure. Maternal smoking, drugs, alcohol. Multiple gestation: twins, triplets, quads. Large for Dates Babies Large
Weigh over 4000grams (9lbs) at birth. Mothers run high blood sugars during the pregnancy. At birth the baby’s blood sugar drops. If not supported with extra glucose during the first 24 hours, these infants can die. 10 percent glucose water can be fed orally or through an intravenous line. Transient Respiratory Distress Syndrome Syndrome
Occurs when a nearly full term baby is born a little too early. The lungs have not made a protein called surfactant, which lubricates the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. Oxygen and moist air support for 24 hours helps. Within 24 hours the baby’s own body is manufacturing surfactant. Prenatal Care Prevents Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight
Saves mothers and babies. Education about healthy pregnancy and birth spacing. Growth monitoring of the developing baby. Blood testing for diseases. Early treatment of diseases and infections. Nutrition and health monitoring of mothers. Summary Summary
Babies that are born too early suffer from health challenges and developmental delays. Maternal health and nutrition is a major factor influencing the health of the baby. Babies may be born too soon, too small, or too large. Any of these conditions requires support. Prenatal care helps prevent these problems. Preemies Do Grow Up! Preemies Then and Now Photos from Preemie Care: Sarah, Ethan, and Noah ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2011 for the course FAMR 230 taught by Professor Brown,l during the Spring '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.
- Spring '08