Unformatted text preview: Reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) An overview of the current process and its implications for UNESCO
BSP/PMR, July 2002 A. Defining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) e Why the MDGs ? e What are the MDGs ? Why the MDGs ?
The 1990s: a decade of faltering progress
progress continued … but too slowly to reach agreed targets but … and slowing down and Under-5 mortality rate Maternal mortality rate Child malnutrition Water and sanitation Income poverty Primary education MDGs are meant to accelerate progress e What are the MDGs ?
MDGs were set by all Government leaders at the UN Millennium Summit, September 2000) e All UN organisations decided to be guided by MDGs in their future action: unity of purpose, coherent action, synergies and strategic approaches by the UN system as a whole (guided by CEB) e Leaders pledged to strive, individually and collectively, towards these goals through international, regional and national action, concerted by the UN. MDGs are a combination of …
Millennium Goals … Millennium Emanate from UN Summits and Conferences of the 1990s… Emanate UN … proposed in the UN Secretary-General’s Millennium Report: Millennium « We, the peoples: the role of the United Nations in the 21st « We, the peoples: the role of the United Nations in the 21st century » … and endorsed in the United Nations Millennium Declaration (8 United September 2000) September 7 areas explicitly addressed in the Millennium Declaration: Peace, security and disarmament Development goals Development and poverty eradication & targets Protecting our common environment Human rights, democracy and good governance Protecting the vulnerable Meeting the special needs of Africa Strengthening the United Nations … and of International Development Goals (IDGs) (IDGs) For several of these key areas, specific indicators were For included in the Millennium Declaration – constituting the international development goals (IDG) international Subsequently, IDGs from other declarations were combined Subsequently, and harmonised with the IDGs set in the Millennium Declaration goals Declaration The resulting set of goals, numerical targets and The quantifiable indicators to assess progress constitute the Millennium Development Goals… Millennium … presented in the SG’s “Road map towards the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration” (September 2001) Declaration” (September MDGs: 8 goals, 18 targets, 48 indicators
(as of 22 May 2002) Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4. Reduce child mortality Goal 5. Improve maternal health Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development
For each goal: one or several targets; one or several indicators However, several key areas identified have not been captured adequately However, or at all or W hÖ I See list of MDGs (goals, targets and indicators) See list of MDGs (goals, targets and indicators) MDGs: Drawbacks and lacunae
Essential goals/targets/indicators are missing from the MDGs – especially in areas of concern to UNESCO. However… … they may be referred to in other provisions of the Millennium Declaration,… … or in other 1990s Conference documents, including those convened by UNESCO. Principle: «The list of millennium development goals does not undercut in any way agreements on other goals and targets reached at the global conferences of the 1990s.” (Kofi Annan, “Road Map…”, September 2001) B. Progressing towards the MDGs e e e Overall strategy Key instruments and mechanisms Coordinating and monitoring progress Proposed overall strategy for achieving the MDGs (as of 7 June 2002)
Three complementary initiatives: the Millennium Project, a research initiative to be led by Professor Sachs, the Millennium research under guidance of UNSG and UNDP Admnistrator, including (1) a UN Expert Group (with UNESCO representation), (2) an International advisory panel, (3) UNESCO 10 Task Forces (UNESCO to play a role) 10 the Millennium Reports, an effort to oversee comprehensive global and the Millennium an national reporting and monitoring of progress, and national the Global Millennium Campaign, a special initiative aimed at building the Global special awareness and creating new coalitions for action across North and South for development generally and the MDGs in particular.
with emphasis on: with Wcountry-level action and reporting h country-level Wgreater system-wide coordination h greater W e See text Jeffrey Sachs h e h See h Global coordination and monitoring “Campaign manager” and “scorekeeper” for the MDGs Campaign within the UN system: Mark Malloch Brown (in his within Mark capacity as Chair of the UNDG) (December 2001); capacity SG’s “Special Adviser on the MDGs” : Professor Jeffrey Sachs, Director, Earth Institute,Columbia University, with a brief to work closely with Mr Malloch Brown on these issues brief (February 2002) (February DESA/SG: annual reports to the General Assembly: annual comprehensive (every 5 years beginning in 2005) and thematic (yearly): thematic
- 2002: preventing armed conflicts and the treatment and prevention of diseases; - 2003: financing or development and strategies for sustainable development; - 2004: bridging the digital divide and curbing transnational crime MDGs: Key actors United Nations Development Group United (UNDG) – with UNESCO as a member (UNDG) Chief Executives Board (CEB; formerly Chief ACC) – with UNESCO as a member ACC) UN Country Teams Key role of UNDG in system-wide & country-level mobilization for MDGs
Executive Committee UNDP (Chair) UNICEF UNFPA WFP UNIFEM DESA UNCTAD UNAIDS UNAIDS IFAD UNDCP IFAD UNDCP OHCHR UNCHS UN-Habitat UNOPS FAO, ILO, UNIDO, WHO UNESCO Regional Commissions High Commissioner for Human Rights Special Representative of the SG for Children in Special Armed Conflict Armed Observer: World Bank UNDG and its machinery
UNDG Executive Committee supported by UNDP Development supported Group Office (DGO) as secretariat Group UNDG Programme Committee UNDG Working Group on MDGs Millennium Campaign Unit Millennium Project Expert Group and other ad hoc groups, as required The arbiter : the Chief Executives Board - CEB (former ACC)
27 Members Assisted by the High-Level Committee on Programmes (HLCP) Assisted High-Level and the High-Level Committee on Management (HLCM). High-Level
eee hhh See Minutes of the CEB retreat in Rome (11 April 2002) on MDGs UNDP UNFPA UNICEF WFP ODCCP UNHCR IFAD UNCTAD UNEP UN ILO - DESA FAO - OCHA UNESCO - HCHR UNIDO - Reg. Coms. WHO - UNU World Bank - UNITAR IMF UNRWA ITU ICAO UPU WMO WIPO IAEA WTO MDGs: Key instruments The Common Country Assessment (CCA) The – United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) Framework MDG Country reports
N.B.: these instruments are new or being revised A thoroughly re-oriented CCA/UNDAF Goal: to create a single common development assistance single framework (UNDAF) for all UN programmes at country-level, with common objectives and time frame, with e identifying priorities for action h e identifying areas where the UN can make a significant, h identifying strategic difference (especially in favor of the poorest and most vulnerable) – including in UNESCO domains most e strengthening the coherence of the UN system as a whole h Being revised to include MDG targets and indicators, which are now an essential sub-set in the 2002 revised CCA sub-set Indicator Framework Indicator e e e See 2002 Revised ACC/UNDAF Guidelines h h h See MDG Country Reports
h A UNDP-coordinated initiative UNDP-coordinated W An essential tool for country-level coordination and An monitoring monitoring W Mainly descriptive, not prescriptive or analytical W Adapted to country priorities (relevant goals, targets, Adapted indicators) indicators) W Several pilot reports already completed (Bolivia, Several Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Madagascar, Mauritius, Tanzania and Viet Nam), 40 more in preparation in 2002. 2002. By the end of 2004, every programme country is expected to By produce at least one MDGR in time for the Secretaryproduce General’s global report on MDG progress in 2005. Status of UNESCO’s involvement
Revised CCA-UNDAF: need to be involved in the Revised 5 UNDG pilot countries selected (Benin, Ecuador, Kenya, Madagascar and Pakistan) Kenya, Country-level MDG Reports: need to develop Country-level UNESCO’s involvement UNESCO’s Problem: insufficient presence in many countries CEB and UNDG (including CEB’s HLGP and CEB UNDG’sWorking Group on MDGs) UNDG’sWorking C. Implications for UNESCO e How comprehensive ? h How e Some major issues
e How comprehensive are MDGs?
Are the strategic interests and programmatic Are priorities of UNESCO adequately reflected in the MDGs ? in Do MDGs sufficiently incorporate existing Do goals, commitments and plans of action set by or developed within UNESCO ? by MDGs and natural sciences Millennium Declaration aims at « Protecting our Millennium common environment » common The word « science » is not mentioned at all in the The Millennium Declaration Millennium No mention of ethics of science (« new ethic of No (« new ethic of preservation and stewarship ») MDGs focus on environmental sustainability, with MDGs strong implications for UNESCO’s water-related programmes programmes
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water MDGs and social and human sciences
Millennium Declaration strongly emphasizes Millennium the role of human rights, and the values of freedom, justice, solidarity and shared responsibility responsibility MDG # 8 on « Develop a Global Partnership MDG for Development » for Target # 11 related to slum-dwellers MDGs and culture The Millennium Declaration addresses The culture of peace and dialogue among civilizations, and cultural diversity, but only in its part on « Values and principles »: « Human in
beings must respect one other, in all their diversity of belief, culture and language. Differences within and between societies should be neither feared nor repressed, but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. A culture of peace and dialogue among all civilizations should be actively promoted.” promoted.” There are no culture-related MDGs MDGs and communication - information NICTs, freedom of the media and right of the NICTs, public to have access to information strongly advocated in the Millennium Declaration advocated No mention of the « digital divide » in the No Millennium Declaration Millennium MDG Target 18: « In co-operation with the MDG private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications » communications
Indicator 47. Telephone lines per 1000 people Indicator Telephone Indicator 48. Personal computers per 1000 people Indicator Personal Other Indicators to be developed MDGs and education
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women (including)
6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education 7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 8. Literacy rate of 15-24-year-olds Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and to all levels of education no later than 2015
9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education 10. Ratio of literate females to males of 15-to-24-year-olds + Other related goals/targets/indicators (HIV/AIDS, poverty, …) Education MDGs and EFA : establishing linkages
MDG goals: By 2015, to ensure that children By everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling course Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015. EFA goals: 1. Early childhood education 2. UPE (free, compulsory and UPE of quality) by 2015 of 3. Learning needs of young Learning people and adults people 4. Adult literacy increase by 50% Adult by 2015 by 5. Gender parity by 2005 Gender (primary and secondary), gender equality by 2015 gender 6. Quality of education NB: The UNGASS on Children (May 2002) set a 90 percent target for primary education by 2010 Major challenges for UNESCO
1. 2. 3. Ensuring a proper reflection of UNESCO’s Ensuring priorities, content-wise and process-wise priorities, Ensuring UNESCO’s participation and Ensuring representation at global (UNDG/CEB)/countryrepresentation level (UN country team) Sensitising all UNESCO programme managers Sensitising that ALL UNESCO programmes must henceforth be related to and cast in the context of MDGs of
This is a problem shared by all specialized agencies (e.g.: ILO, WHO, FAO…) Some immediate requirements for UNESCO
1. 2. 3. 4. Contribute to review of CCA/UNDAFs for 5 pilot Contribute countries (Benin, Ecuador, Kenya, Madagascar and Pakistan) Pakistan) Contribute to work of UN country teams in pursuit of Contribute MDG Global Campaign and national MDG reports MDG Contribute to monitoring and reporting on MDG Contribute attainment (including UIS involvement) attainment Contribute to (UNDP) Human Development Report Contribute 2003 (with its focus on MDGs) 2003 …/… …/… Solidify UNESCO’s presence, participation and Solidify substantive contribution on all issues raised within UNDG and its sub-groups within Senior presence at major intergovernmental Senior events (such as ECOSOC, General Assembly) to pursue UNESCO’s strategic interests to In-house information, communication and In-house training (of staff at HQ+field) on MDGs training MDG monitoring and reporting requirements At the global level: W contribute to thematic reports emanating from Prof. h contribute Sachs’ MDG Project; Sachs’ e obtain agreement of all partners that EFA Monitoring h obtain Report serve as the main global reporting tool on the two education-related MDGs and other international MDGeducation-related related instruments (such as PRSPs); e contribute to the statutory annual reporting to DESA. h At the national level: W contribute and highlight UNESCO input to country-level h contribute MDG Reports; MDG e contribute to CCA-UNDAF activities at the country-level. h Solidify UNESCO’s presence, participation and contribution to UNDG Designate offices responsible for substantive input at HQ Ensure substantive capacity by NYO, beyond present factual reporting on Ensure developments developments Mainstream knowledge about MDGs and promote linkage to MDGs in Mainstream activities of all Programme Sectors and Field Offices Raise UNESCO’s profile in MDG-related fora: e at the global level (CEB, UNDG; sectoral contributions to CCA/UNDAF) h at e at the country-level : preparation of CCA/UNDAF and MDG country reports h (NB: this may have budgetary implications) (NB: Emphasize relevance to MDGs of existing frameworks and mechanisms where UNESCO plays or can play a lead / coordinating / significant role (especially EFA) (especially Promote UNESCO issues (cultural diversity, dialogue, peace, science, communication, quality education, etc.) in context of MDG pursuit and within framework of UNDG/CEB. framework W e e e Demonstrate UNESCO’s institutional Demonstrate commitment commitment In-house information, communication and training give higher profile to MDGs in institutional information -- including C/4, give C/5, regional strategies, EX/GC documents, speeches, press releases, etc. C/5, contribute to UNDG’s Communication Strategy at all levels (including contribute country-level). country-level). develop MDG-related UNESCO Website (in progress by BSP, at develop www.unesco.org/bsp) www.unesco.org/bsp) ensure timely information and backstopping to sectors and Field Offices ensure on scheduled ACC/UNDAF, PRSPs, etc. on e
W Increase in-house awareness
develop staff training modules on interagency cooperation – including develop revised CCA/UNDAF, MDGs and UN reform processes – with special focus on Field staff (drawing on sample modules by other UNDG/CEB organisations). organisations). reflect on the effectivesness of UNESCO’s past interagency contribution reflect and develop a strategy for enhancing influence and impact. and e http://www.unesco.org/bsp/eng/mdg.htm ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2011 for the course FAMR 230 taught by Professor Brown,l during the Spring '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.
- Spring '08