anatomy 3-23-10 - Chapter 19a Endocrine System A Nervous...

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Chapter 19a: Endocrine System A. Nervous System vs. Endocrine System 1. systems work together to regulate homeostasis a. coordinate closely b. have complementary actions 2. nervous system a. actions short term and have specific response 3. endocrine system a actions are NOT immediate, but are ongoing B. Endocrine system 1. endocrine cells of endocrine glands - ductless, glandular secretory cells that release chemicals (hormone s) directly into the blood. 2. gland secretes hormones that travel to target cells or tissue which respond to its presence 3. hormones - a compound secreted by one cell that travels through the circulatory system to affect the activities of cells in another part of the body a. regulate metabolic activity of the target cells (any cell that has a specific receptor for a hormone) 1) speeds up or slows down processes of target tissues b. very specific to a particular target -only through receptor in cell membrane and cell cytoplasm c. 3 types of hormones 1. amino acid derivatives 2. peptide 3. steroids (produced in adrenal cortex and reproductive organs) Structures of Endocrine System C. Hypothalamus 1. part of diencephalon of the brain stem 2. regulates both the nervous and endocrine systems a. autonomic centers that control the adrenal medulla - sympathetic system b. acts itself as an endocrine organ 1) secretes ADH - antidiuretic hormone 2) secretes oxytocin 3) axons travel in the infundibulum to posterior pituitary gland for release of ADH and oxytocin into the blood circulation c. secretes regulatory hormones that control activities of the endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary gland 1) releasing hormones (RH) - stimulate production of hormones 2) inhibiting hormones (IH) - prevent synthesis and secretion of hormones D. pituitary gland - hypophysis 1. located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone 2. connected to hypothalamus by infundibulum 3. two divisions which release hormones a. posterior pituitary/neurohypophysis/pars nervosa secretes two hormones
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1) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - vasopressin a) primary function - restrict water loss at the kidneys b) additional function - may cause constriction of blood vessels which can elevate or increase blood pressure c) lack of secretion causes
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2011 for the course ANATOMY 100 taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '11 term at Saint Louis.

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anatomy 3-23-10 - Chapter 19a Endocrine System A Nervous...

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