Anatomy 3-30-10 - Chapter 22a: Cardiovascular System:...

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Chapter 22a: Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation A. General Organization 1. pulmonary circuit vs. systemic circuit a. pulmonary - heart to lung to heart 1) gas exchange b. systemic - heart to body structures to heart 1) distributes blood to all organs 2) nutrient, gas and waste exchange 2. arteries take blood away from heart 3. capillaries - chemical and gaseous exchange take place in these tiny vessels 4. small veins merge into larger veins which return blood to heart B. Histological organization 1. tunica interna - inner layer a. endothelial (epithelial) lining with connective tissue and elastic fibers 1) arteries have internal elastic membrane 2. tunica media a. smooth muscle 1) vasoconstriction vs vasodilation b. arteries - external elastic membrane 3. tunica externa - tunica adventitia a. connective tissue sheath around vessels b. has small vessels within layer to supply actual vessel 4. arteries vs. veins a. arteries thicker - tunica media thicker - more smooth muscle and elastic fibers C. Types of arteries 1. elastic arteries a. large arteries - up to 2.5 cm b. walls very resilient - ability to stretch and recoil very important c. tunica media - high density of elastic fibers - not much smooth muscle 2. muscular arteries a. medium size - .4cm b. tunica media - thick with more smooth muscles than elastic arteries 1) sympathetic control 2) regulates flow of blood to organs 3. arterioles a. small arteries - 30μ b. tunica media - small amount of smooth muscle
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Anatomy 3-30-10 - Chapter 22a: Cardiovascular System:...

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