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History 111-Week Four in Class Notes

History 111-Week Four in Class Notes - History 111 Week...

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History 111- Week four in Class Notes 9-13-10 Hellenism -comes from Ellinismos (greek) -also used to describe a set of values or cultural traits that have to do with Greek ideals What exactly is it? -a body of humanistic and classical ideals associated with ancient Greece -includes reason and the pursuit of knowledge-origins of philosophy -the arts, moderation -civic responsibility -you actually have a responsibility to the society you live in -bodily development -physical education - all of these traits and qualities work together Examples of Hellenism -Artistic Representation -idealism in representing the human form -perfection in form….not necessarily a “real” image -vibrant, full of life, knowledge of anatomy -head is 1/6 of body in sculptures but 1/8 of the real body -muscles are made to look better than they are in reality -compare to Egyptian imagines -Architecture -Greco Roman Temple -symmetry and balance -the Greek temple -balance in numbers, proportions(between width and height) , mathematical structure -Golden ratio: -Philosophy - Socrates (470-399 BC): philosophy should consider moral and ethical problems…how do you life your life? -Socrates left no writings…taught by dialogue -Plato used Socrates as character in his writing -Athenian leaders didn’t like him b/c he asked youth challenge authority, the gods, etc -convicted of “corrupting youth,” sentenced to death -willingly drank a poison to kill himself -gives us Socratic method….asking leading questions to make students think -first philosopher to make a clear distinction between body and soul - Plato (427-347 BC) -student of Socraates, founded “The Academy” -wrote “dialogues” of Socrates in which he placed his philosophy in the mouth of Socrates -Theory of Forms: -How can we apply a single word to multiple things? -A chair…all chairs have something in common….the chair’s FORM or IDEA -All individuals participate in the FORM -The Republic: -one of the first great pieces of literature -society as three parts….philosopher kings, guardians or society, ordinary folk
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-came up with analogy for society -Kings represent intellect -guardians represent will
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