internet

internet - Internet and the WWW Internet and the WWW What...

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Unformatted text preview: Internet and the WWW Internet and the WWW What is the Internet History of the Internet How data travels on the Internet Anatomy of a URL Purpose of a Web Browser DNS (Domain Naming System) New Applications of the Internet Connectivity and Communications Connectivity and Communications Ability to connect devices to other devices thru communication channels Email Video and Audio Conferencing Telecommuting Sharing resources thru networking Sharing content VoIP Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, RSS feeds Vonage, SKYPE Web 2.0/Web 1.0 Cumulative changes the way software developers end users use the web Describes how we are using the web WEB 2.0 WEB 1.0 Business driven Static web pages Content delivered by an administrator Reading the web Screeching modems Higher HW, SW and telecommunications cost Interacting with websites Community driven Users creating Includes but not limited to: and sharing Wikis, blogs, video sharing content in many forms (blogs, sites, social networking photos, videos) sites More social Experiencing the web Broadband Emerging Technology Cloud Computing Cloud is a metaphor for the Internet Renting “as you go” instead of buying Data and applications exist on a "cloud" of Web servers with on­demand service Access thru a browser, data and software maintained on a server Reduce hardware and software costs for a company Logging into a web based email system (Gmail) www.pandora.com http://www.commoncraft.com/cloud­computing­video • A collection of collection computers and devices connected together via communications media such as cables, telephone lines, and modems. • LAN /MAN/WAN • The Internet is the The world’s largest collection of computer networks. computer Network Network Local Area Network Just remember… Just remember… It took 38 years for radio to reach 50 million users 13 years for television to reach 50 million users Less than 4 years for the Web to do the same! History of the Internet History of the Internet ARPANET Networking project by Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)/ 4 sites involved Goal: To allow scientists at different locations to share information Goal: To function if part of network were disabled Became functional September 1969 http://www.pbs.org/opb/nerds2.0.1/geek_glossary/packet_switching_flash.html Video on Packet Switching History of the Internet History of the Internet Today More than 350 million host nodes 1984 More than 1,000 host nodes 1969 Four host nodes History of the Internet History of the Internet Who controls the Internet? Now: World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Oversees research, sets standards and guidelines Tim Berners-Lee, director Future: Internet2 (I2) Internet-related research and development project Develops and tests advanced Internet technologies How the Internet Works Slow-speed technology Dial-up access modem in your computer uses a standard telephone line to connect to the Internet Connection must be established each time you log on. Slow but inexpensive High-speed connection Digital subscriber line (DSL), cable telephone Internet services (CATV), cable modem, fixed wireless, and satellite modems Connection is always on— whenever the computer is running Packet Switching Packet Switching Data is sent out in sequence Small chunks (packets) of data (1,000 to 1,500 characters) Routers determine the most efficient path of the data based on network traffic Packets are reassembled at the destination computer Domain name Domain name What is a domain name? Text version of Internet protocol (IP) address Number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to Internet Cybersquatting Cybersquatting Arbitration or a lawsuit Arbitration Lawsuit a complainant must demonstrate that the disputed domain is identical or confusingly similar to its trademark, that the respondent does not have a right or legitimate interest in the domain name and that the respondent registered and used the domain name in bad faith. Financial Damages How you Access the Internet How you Access the Internet Dial­up, Broadband, Wireless, Browsers ISP, Regional or National SP OSP (AOL and MSN, for example) Wireless Internet Service Provider 1. 2. 3. Protocols How Does the Internet Work? How Does the Internet Work? Rules/standards Establish connections between two or more computers Packet switching The main Internet pathways and connections Internet backbone Internet service providers (ISP) or on­line service providers (OSP) Provide users with access to the Internet Internet Protocols Internet A packet switching network TCP/IP – Communication Rules or Language of the Internet Design: Split data into packets, use an addressing scheme, route data over the network, detect errors and resend data Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), verifies successful delivery, detects errors, handles resending data Internet Protocol (IP), responsible for moving packets from one node to another (makes the routing decisions by checking the destination address) Internet would not have scaled without tcp/ip IP address Four numbers (0 to 255) separated by periods, such as 64.233.161.104 Domain names Associated English names assigned to IP addresses Domain Name System (known as Domain Name System (known as the DNS) Converts domain names into IP addresses Without the DNS, the Internet would crash One of the largest, distributed databases on the planet Every domain name has a domain name server somewhere that handles its requests What happens when I type a web address and press enter The browser by working with the local name server resolves the URL into an IP address The browser sends a request to that IP address The server finds the correct document/ file) The document/file is sent to your browser Browser displays the document/file The World Wide Web The World Wide Web A worldwide collection of electronic documents Also called the Web Each electronic document is called a Web page Can contain text, graphics, sound, video, and built-in connections A Web site is a collection of related Web pages Tim Berners­Lee Tim Berners­Lee 1989 he invented the WWW 1990 he wrote a GUI Browser, named WorldWideWeb and it ran on the NeXT Computer Marc Andreessen co­developed a GUI at the NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) that was easy to Install and Use, called Mosaic Started the Internet Software Company Netscape Communications with Jim Clark (Silicon Graphics) Vint Cerf Vint Cerf Founding Father of the Internet Co­Developed TCP/IP with Robert Kahn Web Basics Web Basics Hyperlink Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Web browser Web server Controls communication between Web clients and servers Stores and delivers Web pages and other Web services Web Basics Web Basics Uniform Resource Locator Top­level domain (TLD) Web page address Incorporates domain name of Web server and location of Web page file on server Final portion of domain name ­ .com, .edu Anatomy of a URL Anatomy of a URL The World Wide Web The World Wide Web How do handheld computers and cellular telephones access Use a microbrowser the Web? that displays Web pages that contain mostly text Must be Internetenabled The World Wide Web The World Wide Web What is downloading? The process of a computer receiving information Depending upon connection speed, downloading can take from a few seconds to several minutes The World Wide Web The World Wide Web What is a subject directory? Lets you find information by clicking links rather than entering keywords Search tool with organized set of topics and subtopics The World Wide Web The World Wide Web What is a search engine? Program used to find Web sites and Web pages by entering words or phrases called search text Also called a keyword Guidelines for evaluating the value of Web sites Guidelines for evaluating the value of Web sites Affiliation Audience Authority Content Currency Design Objectivity The World Wide Web The World Wide Web Portal News Informational Business/Marketing Educational Entertainment Advocacy Blog Wiki Content Aggregator Personal The World Wide Web The World Wide Web What is a portal? A Web site that offers a variety of services from one, convenient location, usually for free Searching, sports, e-mail, news, weather, auctions, Web communities (Web sites that join people with similar interests) The World Wide Web The World Wide Web What is a content aggregator? Business that gathers and organizes Web content and then distributes, or feeds, the content to subscribers for free or a fee The World Wide Web The World Wide Web What is streaming audio? The process of transferring audio in a continuous and even flow Enables you to listen to music as it downloads to your computer The World Wide Web The World Wide Web Programs that extend the capability of a browser You can download many plug-ins at no cost from various Web sites What are plug­ins? Web­Authoring Software Web­Authoring Software Allows you to create HTML documents using word­processor­like software WYSIWYG editors Great convenience for quickly creating Web pages Security/Privacy Cookies Small text files stored on your computer Can contain data or unique identifier that can be used to look up your personal profile in a database May be a threat to security and privacy Other threats?? Short for electronic commerce Business transaction that occurs over the Internet E­Commerce What is E­commerce? Business to consumer (B2C) Sale of goods to general public Consumer to consumer (C2C) One consumer sells directly to another Business to business (B2B) Business providing goods and services to other businesses What is FTP? Other Internet Services Other Internet Services File Transfer Protocol—Internet standard that allows you to upload and download files with other computers on the Internet A real-time Internet communications service that notifies you when one or more people are online and allows you to exchange messages or Step 2. Step 1. files Login to the IM server The server determines if any of your established friends, family, or coworkers, called buddies, are online What is instant messaging (IM)? Other Internet Services Other Internet Services Step 5. Your buddy replies Step 3. You send instant messages to an online buddy Step 4. Your Instant Message travels through a messaging server and then to the online buddy Additional LES Rules Never send out E­Mail that you would not want to become public ® ® Never send abusive, threatening, harassing or bigoted messages ® Do not type in UPPERCASE. ® This is called shouting and perceived to be offensive. ® Use a normal mix of upper and lowercase letters ® Think twice before sending E­Mail. You cannot get it back. ® Personal notes should not sent via e­mail Acronyms Acronyms ISP, Internet Service Provider LAN, Local Area Network WAN, Wide Area Network DNS, Domain Name System IP, Internet Protocol VoIP, Voice over Internet Protocol TCP/IP, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol HTTP, Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTML, Hypertext Markup Language URL, Uniform Resource Locator ...
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