This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM GRADES 5 - 8 CONTENT AND ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS
Except as noted, the standards in this section describe the cumulative skills and knowledge expected of all students upon exiting grade 8. Students in grades 5-7 should engage in developmentally appropriate learning experiences to prepare them to achieve these standards at grade 8. These standards presume that the students have achieved the standards specified for grades K -4; they assume that the students will demonstrate higher levels of the expected skills and knowledge, will deal with increasingly complex art works, and will provide more sophisticated responses to works of art. Determining the curriculum and the specific instructional activities necessary to achieve the standards is the responsibility of states, local school districts, and individual teachers. Dance (5-8) | Music (5-8) | Theatre (5-8) | Visual Arts (5-8) DANCE (5 - 8)
Through creating, performing, and responding to dance, middle school students can continue to develop skills and knowledge that enhance the important development of self-image and social relationships. Cooperation and collaboration are emphasized at this age, fostering positive interactions. Dance education can offer a positive, healthy alternative to the many destructive choices available to adolescents. Students are encouraged to take more responsibility for the care, conditioning, and health of their bodies (both within and outside the dance class), thus learning that self-discipline is a prerequisite for achievement in dance. Students in grades 5-8 develop a sense of themselves in relation to others and in relation to the world. As a result, they are ready to respond more thoughtfully to dance, to perceive details of style and choreographic structure, and to reflect upon what is communicated. The study of dance provides a unique and valuable insight into the culture or period from which it has come. Informed by social and cultural experiences, movement concepts, and dance-making processes, students integrate dance with other art forms. Content Standard #1: Identifying and demonstrating movement elements and skills in performing dance Achievement Standard: Students demonstrate the following movement skills and explain the underlying principles: alignment, balance, initiation of movement, articulation of isolated body parts, weight shift, elevation and landing, fall and recovery Students accurately identify and demonstrate basic dance steps, positions, and patterns for dance from two different styles or traditions (e.g., ballet, square, Ghanasian, Middle Eastern, modern) Students accurately transfer a spatial pattern from the visual to the kinesthetic Students accurately transfer a rhythmic pattern from the aural to the kinesthetic Students identify and clearly demonstrate a range of dynamics / movement qualities Students demonstrate increasing kinesthetic awareness, concentration, and focus in performing movement skills http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 1 of 9 ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM Students demonstrate accurate memorization and reproduction of movement sequences Students describe the action and movement elements observed in a dance, using appropriate movement/dance vocabulary Content Standard #2: Understanding choreographic principles, processes, and structures Achievement Standard: Students clearly demonstrate the principles of contrast and transition Students effectively demonstrate the processes of reordering and chance Students successfully demonstrate the structures or forms of AB, ABA, canon, call and response, and narrative Students demonstrate the ability to work cooperatively in a small group during the choreographic process Students demonstrate the following partner skills in a visually interesting way: creating contrasting and complementary shapes, taking and supporting weight Content Standard #3: Understanding dance as a way to create and communicate meaning Achievement Standard: Students effectively demonstrate the difference between pantomiming and abstracting a gesture Students observe and explain how different accompaniment (such as sound, music, spoken text) can affect the meaning of a dance Students demonstrate and/or explain how lighting and costuming can contribute to the meaning of a dance Students create a dance that successfully communicates a topic of personal significance Content Standard #4: Applying and demonstrating critical and creative thinking skills in dance Achievement Standard: Students create a movement problem and demonstrate multiple solutions; choose the most interesting solutions and discuss the reasons for their choice Students demonstrate appropriate audience behavior in watching dance performances; discuss their opinions about the dances with their peers in a supportive and constructive way Students compare and contrast two dance compositions in terms of space (such as shape and pathways), time (such as rhythm and tempo), and force/energy (movement qualities) Students identify possible aesthetic criteria for evaluating dance (such as skill of performers, originality, visual and/or emotional impact, variety and contrast) Content Standard #5: Demonstrating and understanding dance in various cultures and historical periods Achievement Standard: Students competently perform folk and/or classical dances from various cultures; describe similarities and differences in steps and movement styles Students competently perform folk, social, and/or theatrical dances from a broad spectrum of twentieth century America Students learn from resources in their own community (such as people, books, videas) a folk dance of a different culture or a social dance of a different time period and the cultural/historical context of that
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 2 of 9 ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM dance, effectively sharing the dance and its context with their peers Students accurately describe the role of dance in at least two different cultures or time periods Content Standard #6: Making connections between dance and healthful living Achievement Standard: Students identify at least three personal goals to improve themselves as dancers and steps they are taking to reach those goals Students explain strategies to prevent dance injuries Students create their own warmup and discuss how that warmup prepares the body and mind for expressive purposes Content Standard #7: Making connections between dance and other disciplines Achievement Standard: Students create a project that reveals similarities and differences between the arts Students cite examples of concepts used in dance and another discipline outside the arts (such as balance, shape, and pattern) Students observe the same dance both live and recorded on video; compare and contrast the aesthetic impact of the two observations MUSIC (5 - 8)
The period represented by grades 5-8 is especially critical in students' musical development. The music they perform or study often becomes an integral part of their personal musical repertoire. Composing and improvising provide students with unique insight into the form and structure of music and at the same time help them to develop their creativity. Broad experience with a variety of music is necessary if students are to make informed musical judgments. Similarly, this breadth of background enables them to begin to understand the connections and relationships between music and other disciplines. By understanding the cultural and historical forces that shape social attitudes and behaviors, students are better prepared to live and work in communities that are increasingly multicultural. The role that music will play in students' lives depends in large measure on the level of skills they achieve in creating, performing, and listening to music. Every course in music, including performance courses, should provide instruction in creating, performing, listening to, and analyzing music, in addition to focusing on its specific subject matter. Content Standard #1: Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music Achievement Standard: Students sing accurately and with good breath control throughout their singing ranges, alone and in small and large ensembles Students sing with expression and technical accuracy a repertoire of vocal literature with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6, including some songs performed from memory Students sing music representing diverse genres and cultures, with expression appropriate for the work being performed Students sing music written in two and three parts Students who participate in a choral ensemble sing with expression and technical accuracy a varied repertoire of vocal literature with a level of difficulty of 3, on a scale of 1 to 6, including some songs performed from memory http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 3 of 9 ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM Content Standard #2: Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music Achievement Standard: Students perform on at least one instrument (e.g., band or orchestra instrument, keyboard instrument, fretted instrument, electronic instrument) accurately and independently, alone and in small and large ensembles, with good posture, good playing position, and good breath, bow, or stick control Students perform with expression and technical accuracy on at least one string, wind, percussion, or classroom instrument a repertoire of instrumental literature with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6 Students perform music representing diverse genres and cultures, with expression appropriate for the work being performed Students play by ear simple melodies on a melodic instrument and simple accompaniments on a harmonic instrument Students who participate in an instrumental ensemble or class perform with expression and technical accuracy a varied repertoire of instrumental literature with a level of difficulty of 3, on a scale of 1 to 6, including some solos performed from memory Content Standard #3: Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments Achievement Standard: Students improvise simple harmonic accompaniments Students improvise melodic embellishments and simple rhythmic and melodic variations on given pentatonic melodies and melodies in major keys Students improvise short melodies, unaccompanied and over given rhythmic accompaniments, each in a consistent style, meter, and tonality Content Standard #4: Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines Achievement Standard: Students compose short pieces within specified guidelines (e.g., a particular style, form, instrumentation, compositional technique), demonstrating how the elements of music are used to achieve unity and variety, tension and release, and balance Students arrange simple pieces for voices or instruments other than those for which the pieces were written Students use a variety of traditional and nontraditional sound sources and electronic media when composing and arranging Content Standard #5: Reading and notating music Achievement Standard: Students read whole, half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, and dotted notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 3/8, and alla breve meter signatures Students read at sight simple melodies in both the treble and bass clefs Students identify and define standard notation symbols for pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tempo, articulation, and expression Students use standard notation to record their musical ideas and the musical ideas of others Students who participate in a choral or instrumental ensemble or class sightread, accurately and expressively, music with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 4 of 9 ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM Content Standard #6: Listening to, analyzing, and describing music Achievement Standard: Students describe specific music events (e.g., entry of oboe, change of meter, return of refrain) in a given aural example, using appropriate terminology Students analyze the uses of elements of music in aural examples representing diverse genres and cultures Students demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles of meter, rhythm, tonality, intervals, chords, and harmonic progressions in their analyses of music Content Standard #7: Evaluating music and music performances Achievement Standard: Students develop criteria for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of music performances and compositions and apply the criteria in their personal listening and performing Students evaluate the quality and effectiveness of their own and others' performances, compositions, arrangements, and improvisations by applying specific criteria appropriate for the style of the music and offer constructive suggestions for improvement Content Standard #8: Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts Achievement Standard: Students compare in two or more arts how the characteristic materials of each art (that is, sound in music, visual stimuli in visual arts, movement in dance, human interrelationships in theatre) can be used to transform similar events, scenes, emotions, or ideas into works of art Students describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with those of music (e.g., language arts: issues to be considered in setting texts to music; mathematics: frequency ratios of intervals; sciences: the human hearing process and hazards to hearing; social studies: historical and social events and movements chronicled in or influenced by musical works) Content Standard #9: Understanding music in relation to history and culture Achievement Standard: Students describe distinguishing characteristics of representative music genres and styles from a variety of cultures Students classify by genre and style (and, if applicable, by historical period, composer, and title) a varied body of exemplary (that is, high-quality and characteristic) musical works and explain the characteristics that cause each work to be considered exemplary Students compare, in several cultures of the world, functions music serves, roles of musicians (e.g., lead guitarist in a rock band, composer of jingles for commercials, singer in Peking opera), and conditions under which music is typically performed THEATRE (5 - 8)
In theatre, the artists create an imagined world about human beings; it is the role of the actor to lead the audience into this visual, aural, and oral world. To help students in grades 5-8 develop theatre literacy, it is important that they learn to see the created world of theatre through the eyes of the playwright, actor, designer,
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 5 of 9 ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM and director. Through active creation of theatre, students learn to understand artistic choices and to critique dramatic works. Students should, at this point, play a larger role in the planning and evaluation of their work. They should continue to use drama as a means of confidently expressing their world view, thus developing their "personal voice." The drama should also introduce students to plays that reach beyond their communities to national, international, and historically representative themes. Content Standard #1: Script writing by the creation of improvisations and scripted scenes based on personal experience and heritage, imagination, literature, and history Achievement Standard: Students individually and in groups, create characters, environments, and actions that create tension and suspense Students refine and record dialogue and action Content Standard #2: Acting by developing basic acting skills to portray characters who interact in improvised and scripted scenes Achievement Standard: Students analyze descriptions, dialogue, and actions to discover, articulate, and justify character motivation and invent character behaviors based on the observation of interactions, ethical choices, and emotional responses of people Students demonstrate acting skills (such as sensory recall, concentration, breath control, diction, body alignment, control of isolated body parts) to develop characterizations that suggest artistic choices Students in an ensemble, interact as the invented characters Content Standard #3: Designing by developing environments for improvised and scripted scenes Achievement Standard: Students explain the functions and interrelated nature of scenery, properties, lighting, sound, costumes, and makeup in creating an environment appropriate for the drama Students analyze improvised and scripted scenes for technical requirements Students develop focused ideas for the environment using visual elements (line, texture, color, space), visual principles (repetition, balance, emphasis, contrast, unity), and aural qualities (pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tempo, expression) from traditional and nontraditional sources Students work collaboratively and safely to select and create elements of scenery, properties, lighting, and sound to signify environments, and costumes and makeup to suggest character Content Standard #4: Directing by organizing rehearsals for improvised and scripted scenes Achievement Standard: Students lead small groups in planning visual and aural elements and in rehearsing improvised and scripted scenes, demonstrating social, group, and consensus skills Content Standard #5: Researching by using cultural and historical information to support improvised and scripted scenes Achievement Standard: Students apply research from print and nonprint sources to script writing, acting, design, and directing choices Content Standard #6: Comparing and incorporating art forms by analyzing methods of presentation and
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 6 of 9 ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM audience response for theatre, dramatic media (such as film, television, and electronic media), and other art forms Achievement Standard: Students describe characteristics and compare the presentation of characters, environments, and actions in theatre, musical theatre, dramatic media, dance, and visual arts Students incorporate elements of dance, music, and visual arts to express ideas and emotions in improvised and scripted scenes Students express and compare personal reactions to several art forms Students describe and compare the functions and interaction of performing and visual artists and audience members in theatre, dramatic media, musical theatre, dance, music, and visual arts Content Standard #7: Analyzing, evaluating, and constructing meanings from improvised and scripted scenes and from theatre, film, television, and electronic media productions Achievement Standard: Students describe and analyze the effect of publicity, study guides, programs, and physical environments on audience response and appreciation of dramatic performances Students articulate and support the meanings constructed from their and others' dramatic performances Students use articulated criteria to describe, analyze, and constructively evaluate the perceived effectiveness of artistic choices found in dramatic performances Students describe and evaluate the perceived effectiveness of students' contributions to the collaborative process of developing improvised and scripted scenes Content Standard #8: Understanding context by analyzing the role of theatre, film, television, and electronic media in the community and in other cultures Achievement Standard: Students describe and compare universal characters and situations in dramas from and about various cultures and historical periods, illustrate in improvised and scripted scenes, and discuss how theatre reflects a culture Students explain the knowledge, skills, and discipline needed to pursue careers and avocational opportunities in theatre, film, television, and electronic media Students analyze the emotional and social impact of dramatic events in their lives, in the community, and in other cultures Students explain how culture affects the content and production values of dramatic performances Students explain how social concepts such as cooperation, communication, collaboration, consensus, self-esteem, risk taking, sympathy, and empathy apply in theatre and daily life VISUAL ARTS (5 - 8)
Students in grades 5-8 continue to need a framework that aids them in learning the characteristics of the visual arts by using a wide range of subject matter, symbols, meaningful images, and visual expressions. They grow ever more sophisticated in their need to use the visual arts to reflect their feelings and emotions and in their abilities to evaluate the merits of their efforts. These standards provide that framework in a way that promotes the students' thinking, working, communicating, reasoning, and investigating skills and provides for their growing familiarity with the ideas, concepts, issues, dilemmas, and knowledge important in the visual arts. As students gain this knowledge and these skills, they gain in their ability to apply the knowledge and skills in the visual arts to their widening personal worlds.
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 7 of 9 ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM These standards present educational goals. It is the responsibility of practitioners to choose among the array of possibilities offered by the visual arts to accomplish specific educational objectives in specific circumstances. The visual arts offer the richness of drawing and painting, sculpture, and design; architecture, film, and video; and folk arts -- all of these can be used to help students achieve the standards. For example, students could create works in the medium of videotape, engage in historical and cultural investigations of the medium, and take part in analyzing works of art produced on videotape. The visual arts also involve varied tools, techniques, and processes -- all of which can play a role in students' achieving the standards, as well. To meet the standards, students must learn vocabularies and concepts associated with various types of work in the visual arts. As they develop increasing fluency in visual, oral, and written communication, they must exhibit their greater artistic competence through all of these avenues. In grades 5-8, students' visual expressions become more individualistic and imaginative. The problem -solving activities inherent in art making help them develop cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills. They select and transform ideas, discriminate, synthesize and appraise, and they apply these skills to their expanding knowledge of the visual arts and to their own creative work. Students understand that making and responding to works of visual art are inextricably interwoven and that perception, analysis, and critical judgment are inherent to both. Their own art making becomes infused with a variety of images and approaches. They learn that preferences of others may differ from their own. Students refine the questions that they ask in response to artworks. This leads them to an appreciation of multiple artistic solutions and interpretations. Study of historical and cultural contexts gives students insights into the role played by the visual arts in human achievement. As they consider examples of visual art works within historical contexts, students gain a deeper appreciation of their own values, of the values of other people, and the connection of the visual arts to universal human needs, values, and beliefs. They understand that the art of a culture is influenced by aesthetic ideas as well as by social, political, economic, and other factors. Through these efforts, students develop an understanding of the meaning and import of the visual world in which they live. Content Standard #1: Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes Achievement Standard: Students select media, techniques, and processes; analyze what makes them effective or not effective in communicating ideas; and reflect upon the effectiveness of their choices Students intentionally take advantage of the qualities and characteristics of art media, techniques, and processes to enhance communication of their experiences and ideas Content Standard #2: Using knowledge of structures and functions Achievement Standard: Students generalize about the effects of visual structures and functions and reflect upon these effects in their own work Students employ organizational structures and analyze what makes them effective or not effective in the communication of ideas Students select and use the qualities of structures and functions of art to improve communication of their ideas Content Standard #3: Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols, and ideas Achievement Standard: Students integrate visual, spatial, and temporal concepts with content to communicate intended meaning in their artworks Students use subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks Content Standard #4: Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 8 of 9 ARTSEDGE: The National Standards for Arts Education 1/15/09 5:40 PM Achievement Standard: Students know and compare the characteristics of artworks in various eras and cultures Students describe and place a variety of art objects in historical and cultural contexts Students analyze, describe, and demonstrate how factors of time and place (such as climate, resources, ideas, and technology) influence visual characteristics that give meaning and value to a work of art Content Standard #5: Reflecting upon and assessing the characteristics and merits of their work and the work of others Achievement Standard: Students compare multiple purposes for creating works of art Students analyze contemporary and historic meanings in specific artworks through cultural and aesthetic inquiry Students describe and compare a variety of individual responses to their own artworks and to artworks from various eras and cultures Content Standard #6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines Achievement Standard: Students compare the characteristics of works in two or more art forms that share similar subject matter, historical periods, or cultural context Students describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with the visual arts Copyright The Kennedy Center. All rights reserved. ARTSEDGE materials may be reproduced for educational purposes. http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards/standards_58.cfm Page 9 of 9 ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 04/09/2011 for the course MUSIC ED 2665 taught by Professor Reesedodd during the Fall '09 term at Temple.
- Fall '09