National Standards Glossary

National Standards Glossary - ARTSEDGE Glossary 1/15/09...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTSEDGE Glossary 1/15/09 5:42 PM Dance Music Theatre Visual Arts DANCE AB - A two - part compositional form with an A theme and a B theme; the binary form consists of two distinct, self - contained sections that share either a character or quality (such as the same tempo, movement quality, or style). top ABA - A three - part compositional form in which the second section contrasts with the first section. The third section is a restatement of the first section in a condensed, abbreviated, or extended form. Abstract - To remove movement from a particular or representative context and (by manipulating it with elements of space, time, and force) create a new sequence or dance that retains the essence of the original. Action - A movement event. Aesthetic criteria - Standards on which to make judgments about the artistic merit of a work of art. Alignment - The relationship of the skeleton to the lint of gravit and the base of support. Axial movement - Any movement that is anchored to one spot by a body part using only the available space in any direction without losing the initial body contact. Movement is organized around the axis of the body rather than designed for travel from one location to another; also known as nonlocomotor movement. Call and response - A structure that is most often associated with African music and dance forms, although it is also used elsewhere. One soloist/group performs with the second soloist/group entering "in response" to the first. Canon - Choreographic form that reflects the musical form of the same name, in which individuals and groups perform the same movement/phrase beginning at different times. Chance - A choreographic process in which elements are specifically chosen and defined but randomly structured to create a dance or movement phrase. This process demands high levels of concentration in performance to deal effectively with freeassociation and surprise structures that appear spontaneously. Choreographic - Describes a dance sequence that has been created with specific intent. Choreographic Structure - The specific compositional forms in which movement is structured to create a dance. Classical - Dance that has been developed into highly stylized structures within a culture. Generally developed within the court or circle of power in a society. Discuss - To engage in oral, written, or any other appropriate form of presentation. Dynamics - The expressive content of human movement, Page 1 of 7 ARTSEDGE Glossary 1/15/09 5:42 PM sometimes called qualities or efforts. Dynamics manifest the interrelationships among the elements of space, time, and force/energy. See also movement quality. Elements - The use of the body moving in space and time with force/energy. Elevation - The body's propulsion into the air away from the floor, such as in a leap, hop, or jump. Folk - Dances that are usually created and performed by a specific group within a culture. Generally these dances originated outside the courts or circle of power within a society. Improvisation - Movement that is created spontaneously, ranging from free- form to highly structured environments, but always with an element of chance. Provides the dancer with the opportunity to bring together elements quickly, and requires focus and concentration. Improvisation is instant and simultaneous choreography and performance. Initiation - Point at which a movement is said to originate. This particularly refers to specific body parts and is generally said to be either distal (from the limbs or head) or central (from the torso). Kinesphere - The movement space, or the space surrounding the body in stillness and in motion, which includes all directions and levels both close to the body and as far as the person can reach with limbs or torso. See personal space . Kinesthetic - Refers to the ability of the body's sensory organs in the muscles, tendons, and joints to respond to stimuli while dancing or viewing a dance. Levels - The height of the dancer in relation to the floor. Locomotor movement - Movement that travels from place to place, usually identified by weight transference on the feet. Basic locomotor steps are the walk, run, leap, hop, and jump and the irregular rhythmic combinations of the skip (walk and hop), slide (walk and leap) and gallop (walk and leap). Movement quality - The identifying attributes created by the release, follow - through, and termination of energy, which are key to making movement become dance. Typical terms denoting qualities include sustained, swing, percussive, collapse, and vibratory and effort combinations such as float, dab, punch, and glide. Movement theme - A complete idea in movement that is manipulated and developed within a dance. Musicality - The attention and sensitivity to the musical elements of dance while creating or performing. Narrative - Choreographic structure that follows a specific story line and intends to convey specific information through that story. Nonlocomotor movement - See axial movement . Palindrome - A choreographic structure used with a phrase or longer sequence of movement in which the phrase, for example, is first performed proceeding from movement 1 to movement 2, etc.; when the last movement of the phrase is completed, the phrase is retrograded from the penultimate movement to the first movement. (A commonly used example in prose is "Able was I ere I saw Elba." In this example, the letters are the same forward to the "r" in "ere" as they are backward to the "r.") Personal space - The "space bubble" or the kinesphere that one occupies; it includes all levels, planes, and directions both near Page 2 of 7 ARTSEDGE Glossary 1/15/09 5:42 PM and far from the body's center. Phrase - A brief sequence of related movements that has a sense of rhythmic completion. Projection - A confident presentation of one's body and energy to vividly communicate movement and meaning to an audience; performance quality. Reordering - A choreographic process in which known and defined elements (specific movements, movement phrases, etc.) are separated from their original relationship and restructured in a different pattern. Rhythmic acuity - The physical, auditory recognition of various complex time elements. Style - A distinctive manner of moving; the characteristic way dance is done, created, or performed that identifies the dance of a particular performer, choreographer, or period. Technology - Electronic media (such as video, computers, or lasers) used as tools to create, learn, explain, document, analyze, or present dance. Theatrical - Dance genres primarily developed for the stage (such as jazz and tap). Traditional dance - The term "traditional" is used to denote those dances and dance forms that have arisen out of the tradition of a people, such as the dances of bharata natyam, nob, or the folk dances of indigenous peoples of Europe or other areas. Warmup - Movements and/or movement phrases designed to raise the core body temperature and bring the mind into focus for the dance activities to follow. MUSIC top Alla breve - The meter signature indicating the equivalent of 2/2 time. Articulation - In performance, the characteristics of attack and decay of tones and the manner and extent to which tones in sequence are connected or disconnected. Classroom instruments - Instruments typically used in the general music classroom, including, for example, recorder- type instruments, chorded zithers, mallet instruments, simple percussion instruments, fretted instruments, keyboard instruments, and electronic instruments. Dynamic levels, dynamics - Degrees of loudness. Elements of music - Pitch, rhythm, harmony, dynamics , timbre , texture, form. Expression, expressive, expressively - With appropriate dynamics , phrasing, style , and interpretation and appropriate variations in dynamics and tempo. Form - The overall structural organization of a music composition (e.g., AB, ABA, call and response, rondo, theme and variations, sonata - allegro) and the interrelationships of music events within the overall structure. Fretted instruments - Instruments with frets (strips of material across the fingerboard allowing the strings to be stopped at predetermined locations), such as guitar, ukulele, and sitar. Genre - A type or category of music (e.g., sonata, opera, Page 3 of 7 ARTSEDGE Glossary 1/15/09 5:42 PM oratorio, art song, gospel, suite, jazz, madrigal, march, work song, lullaby, barbershop, Dixieland). Intonation - The degree to which pitch is accurately produced in performance, particularly among the players in an ensemble. Level of difficulty - For purposes of these standards, music is classified into six levels of difficulty: Level 1 - Very easy. Easy keys, meters , and rhythms; limited ranges. Level 2 - Easy. May include changes of tempo, key, and meter; modest ranges. Level 3 - Moderately easy. Contains moderate technical demands, expanded ranges, and varied interpretive requirements. Level 4 - Moderately difficult. Requires well- developed technical skills, attention to phrasing and interpretation, and ability to perform various meters and rhythms in a variety of keys. Level 5 - Difficult. Requires advanced technical and interpretive skills; contains key signatures with numerous sharps or flats, unusual meters, complex rhythms, subtle dynamic requirements. Level 6 - Very difficult. Suitable for musically mature students of exceptional competence. (Adapted with permission from NYSSMA Manual , Edition XXIII, published by the New York State School Music Association, 1991.) Meter - The grouping in which a succession of rhythmic pulses or beats is organized; indicated by a meter signature at the beginning of a work. Meter signature - An indicator of the meter of a musical work, usually presented in the form of a fraction, the denominator of which indicates the unit of measurement and the numerator of which indicates the number of units that make up a measure. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) - Standard specifications that enable electronic instruments such as the synthesizer, sampler, sequencer, and drum machine from any manufacturer to communicate with one another and with computers. Ostinato - A short musical pattern that is repeated persistently throughout a composition. Staves - Plural of staff (the five parallel lines on which music is written). Style - The distinctive or characteristic manner in which the elements of music are treated. In practice, the term may be applied to, for example, composers (the style of Copland), periods (Baroque style), media (keyboard style), nations (French style), form or type of composition (fugal style, contrapuntal style), or genre (operatic style, bluegrass style). Technical accuracy, technical skills - The ability to perform with appropriate timbre , intonation, and diction and to play or sing the correct pitches and rhythms. Timbre - The character or quality of a sound that distinguishes one instrument, voice, or other sound source from another. Tonality - The harmonic relationship of tones with respect to a definite center or point of rest; fundamental to much of Western music from ca. 1600. THEATRE top Page 4 of 7 ARTSEDGE Glossary 1/15/09 5:42 PM Action - The core of a theatre piece; the sense of forward movement created by the sense of time and/or the physical and psychological motivations of characters. Aesthetic criteria - Criteria developed about the visual, aural, and oral aspects of the witnessed event, derived from cultural and emotional values and cognitive meaning. Aesthetic qualities - The emotional values and cognitive meanings derived from interpreting a work of art; the symbolic nature of art. Artistic choices - Selections made by theatre artists about situation, action, direction, and design in order to convey meaning. Classical - A dramatic form and production techniques considered of significance in earlier times, in any culture or historical period. Classroom dramatizations - The act of creating character, dialogue, action, and environment for the purpose of exploration, experimentation, and study in a setting where there is no formal audience observation except for that of fellow students and teachers. Constructed meaning - The personal understanding of dramatic/artistic intentions and actions and their social and personal significance, selected and organized from the aural, oral, and visual symbols of a dramatic production. Drama - The art of composing, writing, acting, or producing plays; a literary composition intended to portray life or character or to tell a story usually involving conflicts and emotions exhibited through action and dialogue, designed for theatrical performance. Dramatic media - Means of telling of stories by way of stage, film, television, radio, or computer discs. Electronic media - Means of communication characterized by the use of technology, e.g., radio, computers, e.g., virtual reality. Ensemble - The dynamic interaction and harmonious blending of the efforts of the many artists involved in the dramatic activity of theatrical production. Environment - Physical surroundings that establish place, time, and atmosphere/mood; the physical conditions that reflect and affect the emotions, thoughts, and actions of characters. Formal production - The staging of a dramatic work for presentation for an audience. Front of house - Box office and lobby. Improvisation - The spontaneous use of movement and speech to create a character or object in a particular situation. Informal production - The exploration of all aspects of a dramatic work (such as visual, oral, aural) in a setting where experimentation is emphasized. Similar to classroom dramatizations with classmates and teachers as the usual audience. New art forms - The novel combination of traditional arts and materials with emerging technology (such as performance art, videodiscs, virtual reality). Role - The characteristic and expected social behavior of an individual in a given position (e.g., mother, employer). Role portrayal is likely to be more predictable and one - dimensional than character portrayal. Page 5 of 7 ARTSEDGE Glossary 1/15/09 5:42 PM Script - The written dialogue, description, and directions provided by the playwright. Social pretend play - When two or more children engage in unsupervised enactments; participants use the play to explore social knowledge and skills. Tension - The atmosphere created by unresolved, disquieting, or inharmonious situations that human beings feel compelled to address. Text - The basis of dramatic activity and performance; a written script or an agreed - upon structure and content for an improvisation. Theatre - The imitation/representation of life, performed for other people; the performance of dramatic literature; drama ; the milieu of actors and playwrights, the place that is the setting for dramatic performances. Theatre literacy - The ability to create, perform, perceive, analyze, critique, and understand dramatic performances. Traditional forms - Forms that use time- honored theatrical practices. Unified production concept - A brief statement, metaphor, or expression of the essential meaning of a play that orders and patterns all the play's parts; a perceptual device used to evoke associated visual and aural presuppositions serving to physicalize and unify the production values of a play. VISUAL ARTS top Visual Arts - A broad category that includes the traditional fine arts such as drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture; communication and design arts such as film, television, graphics, product design; architecture and environmental arts such as urban, interior, and landscape design; folk arts; and works of art such as ceramics, fibers, jewelry, works in wood, paper, and other materials. Aesthetics - A branch of philosophy that focuses on the nature of beauty, the nature and value of art, and the inquiry processes and human responses associated with those topics. Analysis - Identifying and examining separate parts as they function independently and together in creative works and studies of the visual arts. Art criticism - Describing and evaluating the media, processes, and meanings of works of visual art, and making comparative judgments. Art elements - Visual arts components, such as line, texture, color, form, value, and space. Art history - A record of the visual arts, incorporating information, interpretations, and judgments about art objects, artists, and conceptual influences on developments in the visual arts. Art materials - Resources used in the creation and study of visual art, such as paint, clay, card - board, canvas, film, videotape, models, watercolors, wood, and plastic. Art media - Broad categories for grouping works of visual art according to the art materials used. Page 6 of 7 ARTSEDGE Glossary 1/15/09 5:42 PM Assess - To analyze and determine the nature and quality of achievement through means appropriate to the subject. Context - A set of interrelated conditions (such as social, economic, political) in the visual arts that influence and give meaning to the development and reception of thoughts, ideas, or concepts and that define specific cultures and eras. Create - To produce works of visual art using materials, techniques, processes, elements, and analysis; the flexible and fluent generation of unique, complex, or elaborate ideas. Expressive features - Elements evoking affects such as joy, sadness, or anger. Expression - A process of conveying ideas, feelings, and meanings through selective use of the communicative possibilities of the visual arts. Ideas - Formulated thoughts, opinions, or concepts that can be represented in visual or verbal form. Organizational principles - Underlying characteristics in the visual arts, such as repetition, balance, emphasis, contrast, and unity. Perception - Visual and sensory awareness, discrimination, and integration of impressions, conditions, and relationships with regard to objects, images, and feelings. Process - A complex operation involving a number of methods or techniques, such as the addition and subtraction processes in sculpture, the etching and intaglio processes in printmaking, or the casting or constructing processes in making jewelry. Structures - Means of organizing the components of a work into a cohesive and meaningful whole, such as sensory qualities, organizational principles, expressive features, and functions of art. Techniques - Specific methods or approaches used in a larger process; for example, graduation of value or hue in painting or conveying linear perspective through overlapping, shading, or varying size or color. Technologies - Complex machines used in the study and creation of art, such as lathes, presses, computers, lasers, and video equipment. Tools - Instruments and equipment used by students to create and learn about art, such as brushes, scissors, brayers, easels, knives, kilns, and cameras. Visual arts problems - Specific challenges based in thinking about and using visual arts components. Page 7 of 7 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2011 for the course MUSIC ED 2665 taught by Professor Reesedodd during the Fall '09 term at Temple.

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