Chpt 7. DNA to Protein

Chpt 7. DNA to Protein - Essential Cell Biology Third...

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Chapter 7 From DNA to Protein: How Cells Read the Genome Essential Cell Biology Third Edition Copyright © Garland Science 2010
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Figure 7-1 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Figure 7-1 Genetic information directs the synthesis of protein. The flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA (transcription) and from RNA to protein (translation) occurs in all living cells. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology:
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Figure 7-2 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Figure 7-2 Genes can be expressed with different efficiencies. Gene a is transcribed and translated much more efficiently than gene B. This allows the amount of protein a in the cell to be much higher than that of protein B. In this and later figures, the untranscribed portions of the DNA are shown in gray.
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Figure 7-3a,b Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Figure 7-3a&b The chemical structure of RNA differs slightly from that of DNA (A)RNA contains the sugar ribose, which differs from deoxyribose, the sugar used in DNA, by the presence of an additional -OH group. (B) RNA contains the base uracil, which differs from thymine, the equivalent base in DNA, by the absence of a -CH3 group.
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Figure 7- 3c Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Figure 7-3c The chemical structure of RNA differs slightly from that of DNA (C) A short length of RNA. The chemical linkage between nucleotides in RNA is the same as that in DNA.
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Figure 7-4 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Figure 7-4. Uracil forms a base pair with adenine. Despite the absence of a methyl group, uracil has the same base-pairing properties as thymine. Thus, U-A base pairs closely resemble T-A base pairs (see Figure 5-6a).
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Figure 7-5 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Figure 7-5 RNA molecules can form intramolecular base pairs and fold into specific structures . RNA is single-stranded, but it often contains short stretches of nucleotides that can base-pair with complementary sequences found elsewhere on the same molecule. These interactions, along with "nonconventional" base-pair interactions, allow an RNA molecule to fold into a three-dimensional structure that is determined by its sequence of nucleotides.
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Table 7-1 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
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Figure 7-6 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Figure 7-6 Transcription produces an RNA complementary to one strand of DNA. The nontemplate strand of the DNA (the top strand in this example) is sometimes called the coding strand because its sequence is equivalent to the RNA product.
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Polymerases catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds
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Figure 7-7 DNA is transcribed by the enzyme RNA polymerase. The RNA polymerase (pale blue) moves stepwise along DNA, unwinding the DNA helix. The resulting RNA transcript is thus single-stranded and complementary to one of the two DNA strands .
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Figure 7-8 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Figure 7-8 Transcription can be visualized in the electron microscope. The micrograph shows many molecules of RNA polymerase simultaneously transcribing two adjacent genes. Molecules of RNA polymerase are visible as a series
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2011 for the course BIOL 3510 taught by Professor Chapman during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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Chpt 7. DNA to Protein - Essential Cell Biology Third...

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