chapter 6b learning_12_-07_09

chapter 6b learning_12_-07_09 - 47 Chapter 6 Learning II...

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Unformatted text preview: 47 Chapter 6 Learning II Dec. 7, 2009 50 Learning and Classical Conditioning ¡ Learning: a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience ¡ Classical conditioning: ¢ Pavlov’s Demonstration ¢ Terminology– US UR CS CR ¢ Acquisition ¢ Extinction (消退) ¢ Spontaneous Recovery (自然恢复) ¢ Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination • Little Albert (J. B. Watson) ¢ Higher-order conditioning 51 Operant conditioning ¡ Thorndike ¢ Instrumental Learning ¢ Law of effect ¡ B.F. Skinner ¢ principle of reinforcement (强化原则) ¢ Reinforcement ¢ Operant chamber (操作箱) ¡ Operant conditioning ¢ Acquisition ¢ Shaping ¢ Extinction ¢ Generalization and Discrimination 52 Operant conditioning: reinforcement ¡ Reinforcement ¢ Delayed reinforcement ¢ Primary and secondary reinforcer ¡ Reinforcement schedule ¢ Continuous reinforcement ¢ Intermittent (partial) reinforcement 间歇性 • Fixed and Variable Ratio • Fixed and Variable Interval 53 Reinforcement and Punishment ¡ Increasing a response: ¢ Positive reinforcement ¢ Negative reinforcement • Escape learning (逃脱学习) • Avoidance learning (回避学习) ¡ Decreasing a response: ¢ Punishment (惩罚) 54 Practice 55 Thorndike vs. Skinner ¡ Instrumental vs. operant conditioning ¢ IL: responses are constrained by the environment ¢ OC: responses control reinforcement ¢ The degree to which an organism is free to respond...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 10 taught by Professor Tom during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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chapter 6b learning_12_-07_09 - 47 Chapter 6 Learning II...

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