chapter 8 b and Final review

chapter 8 b and Final review - Language and Thought Chapter...

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1 Language and Thought Chapter 8 b
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2 www.1ppt.com Overview of the chapter 8 Language 语言 1 Problem Solving 问题解决 2 Decision Making 决策 3
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3 Problem Solving 问题解决
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4 Oedipus Solves the Riddle of the Sphinx
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5 Problem solving 问题解决 ± Definition ± 3 basic classes ± Effective problem solving ± Approaches to problem solving ± Cultures and Problem solving
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6 ± Problem solving ² refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not attainable. ± Greeno (1978) – three basic classes ² Problems of inducing structure 导引性结构问题 • Series completion and analogy problems ² Problems of arrangement (组织问题) ² Problems of transformation (转换问题) Problem Solving: Types of Problems
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7 Figure 8.6 Six standard problems used in studies of problem solving
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8 Raven Standard Progressive Matrices
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9 ± Answer: 5 ± 每一竖列, 前两项相加 得最后一项 ,小圆在内 外的相抵
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10 ± Problem solving ² refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not attainable. ± Greeno (1978) – three basic classes ² Problems of inducing structure (导引性结构问题 • Series completion and analogy problems ² Problems of arrangement (组织问题) • String problem and Anagrams (字谜) – Often solved through insight ( 顿悟 ) – Insight is a sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error ( 尝试错误 ) Problem Solving: Types of Problems
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11
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12 ± Problem solving ² refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not attainable. ± Greeno (1978) – three basic classes ² Problems of inducing structure (导引性结构问题 • Series completion and analogy problems ² Problems of arrangement (组织问题) • String problem and Anagrams (字谜) ² Problems of transformation (转换问题) • Hobbits and orcs problem • Water jar problem Problem Solving: Types of Problems
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13 Figure 8.7 Solution to the hobbits and orcs problem. This problem is difficult because it is necessary to temporarily work “away” from the goal, which frustrates a straightforward approach.
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14 Figure 8.8 The method for solving the water jar problem. The formula is B – A – 2C.
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15 ± Barriers to effective problem solving: ² Irrelevant information ² Functional fixedness ² Mental Set ² Unnecessary Constraints Effective Problem Solving
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16 ± Irrelevant information (无关信息) ² people often assume all the numerical information in a problem is necessary to solve it. (Sternberg, 1986) ² to figure out what information is relevant and what is irrelevant before proceeding. ± Functional fixedness ( 功能固着 ) ² the tendency to perceive an item in terms of its most common use. ( 只看到物体常见用途的倾向 ) ² Examples: string problem 一盒火柴、蜡烛和一些图钉。任务是把蜡烛装到墙上并点燃。 ² Young children : less FF than adults and older children Effective Problem Solving
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17 ± screwdriver
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 10 taught by Professor Tom during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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chapter 8 b and Final review - Language and Thought Chapter...

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