Chapter 8 language

Chapter 8 language - Language and Thought Chapter 8 1...

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1 Language and Thought Chapter 8
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2 www.1ppt.com Overview of the chapter 8 Language 语言 1 Problem Solving 问题解决 2 Decision Making 决策 3
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3 Language 语言
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4 Language 语言 What is language? The Structure of Language Theories of Language Acquisition Language Development Bilingualism Can Animal Learn Language? Culture, Language and Thought
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5 What is language? A language consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages. Properties of Language Symbolic (符号性) : e.g., caterpillar, train Semantic (语义性) • Alphabetic languages and Chinese Generative (生产能力) Structured (结构性) -regularity Language: Turning Thoughts into Words
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6 Language 语言 What is language? The Structure of Language Theories of Language Acquisition Language Development Bilingualism Can Animal Learn Language? Culture, Language and Thought
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7 The Structure of Language Syntax 句法 Semantics 语义 Morphemes 词素 Phonemes 音素
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8 The Structure of Language Phonemes = smallest speech units 100 possible, English – about 40 Morphemes = smallest unit of meaning 50,000 in English, root words, prefixes, suffixes Semantics = meaning of words and word combinations Objects and actions to which words refer Syntax = a system of rules for arranging words into sentences Different rules for different languages
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9 Regularity-grammar ( 语法 ) syntactic rules semantic rules phonological rules Linguistic intuition ( 语言直觉 ) Well-formedness of sentences Paraphrases ( 同义 ) • the girl hit the boy. • The boy was hit by the girl. Ambiguity ( 歧义 ) • They are cooking apples. • I am going to the bank. The Structure of Language
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10 Phonemes (音素) = smallest speech units phoneme and syllable ( 音节 ) 100 possible each language use about 20-80 phonemes English – about 40 a letter has more than one pronunciation • father, had, call, bake combinations of letters The Structure of Language
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11 Morphemes (词素) = smallest unit of meaning 50,000 in English root words ( 词根 ) prefixes (前缀) suffixes (后缀) Each morpheme contributes to the meaning of the entire word. Examples • single morpheme words • combinations – worked, words, disliked The Structure of Language
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12 Semantics = meaning of words, word combinations and sentences Objects and actions to which words refer anomalous sentences 无色的红叶正在听课。 真诚把那只狗吓坏了。 The Structure of Language
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13 Syntax (句法) = a system of rules for arranging words into sentences Different rules for different languages Phrase structure • The brave dog saved the drowning child. • Divided into two parts
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 10 taught by Professor Tom during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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Chapter 8 language - Language and Thought Chapter 8 1...

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