Chapter2 - 2009-9-28 OVERVIEW CHAPTER 2: Goal of...

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2009-9-28 1 CHAPTER 2: THE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE THE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE IN PSYCHOLOGY Sept 28 th , 2009 OVERVIEW ´ Goal of psychological research ´ Basic scientific approach ´ Causation and correlation ´ Types of research ´ Brief introduction to statistics and data analysis PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH ´ Why It's important « Description Explanation « « Prediction « Improvement SCIENTIFIC METHOD ´ Develop a Question & Pose Hypotheses ´ Design the study ´ Conduct a study, collect data ´ Analyze the data and draw conclusions ´ Report the findings Figure 2.2 Flowchart of steps in a scientific investigation CAUSE AND EFFECT ´ Grade and your effort on study ´ Gender stereotype & gender differences ´ Education Æ income A B
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2009-9-28 2 CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP ´ A causal relationship exists when « The cause preceded the effect « The cause was related to the effect « no alternative explanation for the effect other than the cause CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP? ´ Education Æ income or income Æ education A B CORRELATIONS ´ “butterfly effect” ´ Correlation does not prove causation ´ Correlation DOES NOT « indicate which comes first « Rule out alternative explanations TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH ´ Descriptive & Correlational Study « Observational studies « Case Studies « surve survey ´ Experimental Study DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH ´ Observational « Careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects ´ Case study « An in-depth investigation of an individual subject ´ Survey « Use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants’ background and behavior CORRELATIONAL STUDY: LOOKING FOR LINKS y Also called associative y Examines the relationship between two or more variables in a sample of participants y Positive and negative nce y Kids who watch a lot of violent tv have a tendency to be more violent on the playground,, therefore watching violent tv causes playground aggression Number of hours watching violent tv playground viole
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2009-9-28 3 CORRELATIONS ´ Positive Correlation « As one variable changes, the other changes in the same direction ´ Negative Correlation « As one variable changes, the other variable changes in the opposite direction ´ Zero Correlation « No relationship to how one variable changes relative to the other.
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Chapter2 - 2009-9-28 OVERVIEW CHAPTER 2: Goal of...

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