chapter3(1) - Chapter 3 The Biological bases of Behavior...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 The Biological bases of Behavior (trill lfijfliléflli’élilll) Communication in the Nervous System - Hardware: —G|ia tttt'fiéliiifi) — structural support and insulation was) —Neurons HIM-tin —communication - Soma tifi’ll’tfil —ceil body - Dendrites (tiff???) —receive - Axon (till-97$) —transmitawey f I 'r r. L Ill-hit] I, Fund-“r; t .“- r?gl. neuron «mumw—ru— Structure of the neuron. Neurons are the communication links of the nervous system. The diagram highlights the key parts or a neuron, including specialized receptor areas (dendrites). the cell body (some). the axon fiber along which impulses are transmitted. and the terminal buttons. which release chemical messengers that carry signals to other neurons. Neurons vary considerably in size and shape and are usually densely interconnected. Neural Communication: Insulation and Information Transfer 0 Myelin sheath (tttliiiii) —speeds up transmission 0 Terminal Buttons (Xt‘r‘i’) —end of axon; secrete neurotransmitters — Neurotransmitters t i'flfaiaijlifi) — chemical messengers - Synapse ratio —point at which neurons interconnect The Neural Impulse: Electrochemical Beginnings - Hodgkin 8. Huxley (1952} — giant squid tilt Er it‘ll} — Fluids inside and outside neuron u Electrically charged particles (ions—til 1‘) — Neuron at rest— negative charge on inside compared to outside — —70 millivolts — resting potential (title El}. lit.) Neural Impulsefiil'éi‘fi‘llzill): Action Potential (illit’lt' Itit'ii‘.) Stimulation causes cell membrane to open briefly Positively charged sodium (Na+) ions flow in Shift in electrical charge travels along neuron The Action Potential (atlit’l‘iithi‘ri) All — or — none law ($292)???) u. .m The neural impulse. The electric charge of a neuron can be measured with a pair of electrodes connected to an oscilloscope. (a) At rest. the neuron is like a tiny wet battery with a resting potential of about —?0 millivolts. {b} When a neuron is stimulated, a sharp jump in its electric potential omurs, resulting in a spike on the oscilloscope recording of the neurons electrical activity. This change in voltage, called an action potential, travels along the axon. (c) Biochemical changes propel the action potential atong the axon. An action potentlal (EMFIETX) begins when sodium (at) gates intt'ie membrane ol'an axon open. permitti'lg positively charged :30de ions to flow into the axon. (d) By the peak of the action potential. the 93de gates have closed, but potasslum it? ) gates have opened to let potasslum ions flow outward At the next point along the axon membrane, sodium gates open and the process is repeated. thus allowing the action potential to flow along the axon. (e) This blowup of the voltage spike associated with an action potential shows howr these biochemioai changes relate to the electrical activity of the cell. The Synapse: Chemicals as Signal Couriers - Synaptic cleft (stares) - Presynaptic neuron —Synaptic vesicles (fists/Mitt) -Neurotransmitters - Postsynaptic neuron —Receptor (film sites The synapse. When a neural impulse Efifii‘i‘éfl) reaches an axons terminal buttons. it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitter molecuies olfiuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to receptor sites on the postsynaptic neuron. A specific neurotransmitter can bind only to reoeptorsitesthat its molecular structure will fit into. much like a key must fit a lock. OW_M_ When a Neurotransmitter Binds: The Postsynaptic Potential - Voltage change at receptor site — postsynaptic potential (PSP-‘fefiflifi FEES) — Not all—or—none (graded) — Changes the probability of the postsynaptic neuron firing - excitatory PSP (¥é§&%tflifi%fi) :Positive voltage shift that increases the likeiihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials. - inhibitory P5P (timiiili‘ifiifififlffi iii-1'1) : Negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that the postsyn aptic neuron will fire action potentials. mam-mun DEW-elm- .m m nun—nun.— Overview of synaptic transmission Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) "rpm...- - «um-n m nun-m....-—.—r. n rig-n.» minimiqmmmnnwmmn—usm MTV-m “numwmmhuWWNM'MNmmWi-w mnwflwwx— sIMmM-an—Ns nun-mnem- mun—u.uim Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) hum—n in me..— flfl‘l} Mun-"JIiMm-Imnn-n—p—mu—h—n-um mth “wumwmmnnwm lfi MNWD‘W‘IM m "mummhlmmmnmm—Ng mun—s... anhefl .mp9 Signals: From Postsynaptic Potentials to Organization of the Nervous Neural Networks System - One neuron, signals from thousands of other - Central nervous system (CNS) “Fitiiiié'éifié’ — neurons brain and spinal cord (fifijfi) - Requires integration of signals — Afferent =10W3rdthe CNS (“NU _ papS add up. balance out — Efferent = away from the CNS HE lit ) — Balance between IPSPs and EPSPs __ ’ _ . Neural networks - Peripheral nervous systemfililili‘iiii’éiéés’fi— _ Patterns of neural activity nerves that lie outside the central nervous — Interconnected neurons that fire together or 35’5th I J_ _ sequentiaiiy — Somatic nervous system Elltitfili‘a . Synaptic connections — Autonomic nervous system (ANS) itilti‘é - Sympathetic — Elimination and creation — Synaptic pruning - Parasympathetic 2t" Peripheral nervous system 20' Synaptic pruning a - This rlze d be . . . _ unmgflnfflfiumfier} — Somatic nervous system tfiliii/Mliiréxfié’fi) — _ synapses in the human visual com asamnmnmga As voluntary muscles and sensory receptors you can see, the numberot - synapses in this area of the brain peaks at around age 1 Number of Sipfla p593 [x :o"l B as i _ _ and than rnosfiy declines over — Autonomic nervous system (ANS- E] E Edi/é the course at the life span, _. . . This dectine reflects the fié’ifi} — controls automatic, involuntary c...__._.. _ 01 pm - ‘ ‘ Mm:th 2 «:03?! a 5 m rev so :0 afifikgim 35:22? functions . mm: 5 a Na . r , . . WW3“ :smansea ’5 c - Sympathetic (fitting) — Go {fight-or-flight) mm”— - Parasympathetic (Eri'l’fiifi) —Stop Neurotransmitters - Specific neurotransmitters work at specific synapses — Lock and key mechanism - Agonist {fifijffifl— mimics neurotransmitter action - Antagonist (tilltl‘rllfilli —opposes action of a .a... “4...”... ri.i..... ii,,.,...... .-a.._. n... “will. Orgarizetlon of line human nervous system. The central nervous system is composed mostly of neurfltransmlfler Ihe brain. which Is traditionally dlvtded into mm regions: the htndbreln. the midlirain. and in. . fOI'Eblilli- NI three areas oorilrol vital flmdions. bit it's the highly deveiopeo foreofilln that - 15 — 20 n eu rotransm itters known at present difibI'EFIIiates mm {mm lower animals. The reticuarlorrrialion cams; runs through _ _ . _ both the midblaln and the Iindhrain on Its waiiI up and down the brainslem. The peripheral - Interactions between neurotransmitter Circuits nervous system is made up ofthe somatic nervous system. which controts mam Mm and sensory receptots. arid the atlanomic nervous symm. which oontrots smooth muscles t Elm) . blood were fill-H3 .and and: (mitt). Table 3.] ulna-lion Noni-nimmmilicn and 5mm: (|[ 'I'Iu-tr I'Imuliuin "till II! mm»: "ith am t'>:-iilia| lien-min system .‘J-r-plii-i.“ rr-rv-t-u'. wall-n 21mm“ kuythofim mbymornmmmwllhgmm ' _ HUI] (mummdummmmmm _ 501nm: AMI: madamemmmmdbymm ' rim; mu: Dopamine Cmmibua to conllol of volunm mm phenome- amount“ mwm.‘ :flrmw-l gag; (DA: Dormant Miotmizlfltwlth rarkbmn‘uisuw ' ' MM at DA synapses minted wifli sdliooptuen'u Cocain- and amphetamine) ski-ole aniva .1! DA gnome-1 gig-$‘fi-J: WM Cmmmamflmd m i {III} Cont! and MMIQ M lt IE W \ Serotonin Invoked In mguLIbmi 01 sleep .md wakdilnfis. sung. aggression iIilrfi $154} Abnonmlievdsmmyconlflhuleln corp-“9m .IndabwuivE-(Dmpulfive EH disorder lira»: and :iuflar anodepeumi drug:- aim mflwln aim-'1. _; I if m Senauvdddydwthuodhhiblmmm ‘- J: “ wwmwwymwmmmm Enduphins W opirile chug: In manure and attach [outfit Whammrehi and wimmmphmablembm Organization of the Iiilnan nervous system The cendal and peripheral nervous systems M— ilk<clilnlal|d m- aul rum "mm m. iu'Nlnl "mum hr. ll-nlti-mhh ul Enroll-l minim ennui rut-1 TN- p‘l-Dhoml lit-«Hr. m- II-lllfvi'tiu‘. pl m- l.-. ninna. r.-t..v,rh:t m nut lmiuimmran- b.-]'. Dir p.1irflrnl lknvu'. mum n-JL'iiJh! min-- wn Ill News mtvl'n. 'erlli-l til-Md .n n--]_and Illa ant Iii-le DRUM \‘ru. Infih a r it it Ill m.” Ill bin.- 5']: (qr. i—I—J .‘m runs. a“...an ll “LIE.”- mew-rm The autonomic mrvms system (ANS). The ANS Is ounposed of Ihe nerves that donned to the heart. blood vessets. smooth muscles (’F-i'li'fil'l) . and yands. The ANS is divided into the sympalhelic division, whioh mobilizes bodilyI resources in limes o1 need, and the parasympathetic division. which conserves boil}I resouces. Some of Ihe Frey functions corlrolled by each division of the ANS are summarized in [he neagram. Central Nenrous System E|j l‘lZiifla - The spinal cord (Ffiffi‘fi) — Connects the brain to the rest of the body through the peripheral nervous system — Carries the brain‘s commands to peripheral nerves — Relays sensations from the periphery to the brain - The brain The Ventricles of the Brain ,Cerebm- ' spins! fluid Studying the Brain: Research Methods - Electroencephalography (EEG-iiiliEilfil - Damage studiesilesioning (31935.?) - Electrical stimulation (ESB-Htlliii‘fi') - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS-i‘éfifiifiifiliifi) - Brain imaging tfiib‘Jl’ififil’éfii) — - computerized tomography tCT-i‘ifitilliiir'fréififiJ - positron emission tomography iPET- iifil-‘f-Eifijifil — magnetic resonance imaging iMRhfijfi-Efifilfi) — functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRE—i-fgfififi NE 1?? ) The electroencephalograph (EEG) HIE fig m \M‘W‘fiw "i W‘ F lilo-vim. . . Bug-lurid rah-um Bil-Ir Him WC] Ill-ms M hm“. HIP-*1! mutual-Ir MM Recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp permit the EEG to record electrical activity in the cortex over time. The EEG provides 0mm in the fun-n at line tracing called brain waves. Brain waves vary in frequency {cycles per second} and amplitude {measured in voltage]. Various states oi consciousness are associated with dilferent brain waves. Characteristic EEG patterns for men wakefulness, drowsiness. and deep. dreamless sleep are shown here. Event-related potentials (ERP) rip-u hmxnwaipmrqm Lesion studies - Site of the lesion (angular gyrus) in Ferrier‘s monkeys (1876) * Glickstein, 1985 v fix 1 x on) have! I: knob x can. callbratl knob Calibration Icalo l. mu- “nun- knot: An anesthetized lififlfiill rat in a shereotexic instrument. This rat is undergoing brain surgery. After consulting a detailed map of the rat brain, researchers use the control knobs on the apparatus to position an electrode along the two: axes (X. y. and 1) shown in the upper left corner. This precise positioning allows researchers to implant the eiectrode in an exact location in the rat's brain. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) E$¥fifitfil§flifi7fi Experimental procedure 1 produce radioactive particles [I511 3 pm.— ‘ 1' mm: 2 injection 3 cognitive tasks 4 imaging recording and analysis 5 discussion of the results Brain imaging procedures Computerised tomography (CT) scan: A medical technique in which X-rays are passed through the body at different angles. and the resulting data are processed by a computer to create detailed images of body structures. ... u. .4»... .... ....... W... .i..' Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Ibfi‘éiifififiififiiilgi - 2003 Nobel prize (PHYSIOLOGY or MEDICINE) Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging" Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fififiifiifififlifi O ,3. I M. _‘. m. a. £1 Splilli Resolution {tug rum] -3 -2 - l t? l 2 3 4 5 ii 9’ Mllllucopd mam mun Hour In: Tern pun] Resolution [log seconds} ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 10 taught by Professor Tom during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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chapter3(1) - Chapter 3 The Biological bases of Behavior...

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