Chapter5 11-16-09

Chapter5 11-16-09 - Announcements Subject pool credits

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1 Announcements • Subject pool credits 公共邮箱: intropsy.sysu@gmail.com o Pw: psychology o Assignments for psy major o Guide: • Mid-term exam o Grades ± Mean=70, max=99, min=22; Pass rate=70% ± Mean(psy)=76; mean(non-psy)=63. ± Individual grades Tuesday afternoon (B508-2) o Makeup? o Absence o Cheating!
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2 Grade distribution 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 grades grades
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18 Chapter 5: Consciousness Li Yi Nov. 16, 2009
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19 Outline • Nature of consciousness 意识 • Biological Rhythms 生物节律 • Sleep and waking cycle 睡眠周期 •D r e a m s 梦境 • Hypnosis 催眠 • Meditation 冥想 • Mind-Altering Drugs
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20 Consciousness: Personal Awareness • Awareness of external and internal stimuli o “A car is coming.” o “My heart beats fast.” o “I did not realized that a car is coming.” • Theories of awareness o William James – stream of consciousness (意识 流) ± Contents of consciousness are continually changing o Sigmund Freud – unconsciousness (潜意识) ± People’s feelings and behaviors are influenced by the UC needs & wishes.
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21 Levels of Consciousness o Conscious level o A level of mental activities that people are aware of o Nonconsicous level 非意识 o A level of mental activity inaccessible to conscious awareness o Biological processes (e.g. pulse regulation) o Preconscious level 前意识 o Outside of awareness, but can easily be brought into awareness with attention o e.g. “what did you have for dinner last night?” o Unconscious (or subconscious) level 潜意识 o Mental activities are difficult to bring into awareness o Can alter thoughts, feelings and actions.
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22 Research on Consciousness Priming effect without awareness ± People remain aware of external events to some degree (Campbell, 2000; Evans, 1990) ± e.g. New parents ± Awake under anesthesia for surgery (Merikle, 2007) • Awake (2007)
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23 The Electroencephalograph (EEG): A Physiological Index of Consciousness •E E G ( 脑电图 ) – monitoring of brain electrical activity • Brain-waves o Amplitude (height) o Frequency (cycles per second-cps) ± Beta - (13-24 cps) ± Alpha - (8-12 cps) ± Theta- (4-7 cps) ± Delta- (<4cps)
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24
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25 Figure 5.1 The correlation between mental states and electrical activity in the brain. As discussed in Chapter 2, correlations ( 相关 ) alone do not establish causation. For example, there are strong correlations between drowsiness and a particular pattern of cortical activity, as reflected by EEG brain waves. But does drowsiness (睡意) cause a change in cortical activity (皮层活 动) , or do changes in cortical activity cause drowsiness? Or does some third variable account for the changes in both?
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Outline • Nature of consciousness 意识 • Biological Rhythms 生物节律
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Chapter5 11-16-09 - Announcements Subject pool credits

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