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09-Circulatorynotes-1 - Circulatorysystems Animalsneedto o...

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Circulatory systems Gas exchange and circulation Animals need to: o Exchange CO 2  and O 2 o Circulate gases (diffusion) What affects diffusion?  o Distance (how far does it have to travel) o Concentration (for gases, pressure) o Temperature Practical limit to diffusion=0.5mm o Animals > 1mm in diameter: need circulation (increases  diffusion distance) Overview of circulation In animals circulation requires a muscular pump: the heart It also requires a system of vessels to carry fluid o Animals need vessels going away from the heart: Arteries  (large) and arterioles (smaller)   [carries oxygenated blood] o Also need vessels going back to the heart: veins (large) and  venules (smaller)    [carries deoxygenated blood] o Need vessels for gas and fluid exchange: capillaries also  connect arteries to veins
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Arty Arteriole  Capillaries Venules Veins Two circuits The pulmonary circuit: o Deoxygenated blood pumped to lungs o Pumped from the RIGHT ventricle of the heart to the lungs o Gases are exchanged in the lung capillaries o The oxygenated blood then travels to the LEFT atrium of the  heart The systemic circuit: o Oxygenated blood is pumped to the tissues  o Pumped from the LEFT ventricle to tissues o Gases are exchanged in tissue capillaries
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09-Circulatorynotes-1 - Circulatorysystems Animalsneedto o...

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