Bio_Lecture_7

Bio_Lecture_7 - glucose Completeoxidation pyruvate...

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NAD+    +H (and 2e-) NAPH glucose pyruvate Glycolysis Cellular respiration Fermentation Complete oxidation Produces CO 2 Can make 36 ATP Aerobic +O 2   - O 2   Incomplete oxidation Produces inorganic molecules Can make 2 ATP NADH and FADH   2 Nucleotides carry high energy electrons Cellular Respiration Metabolism Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism Metabolic reactions often occur in steps o Metabolic (or biochemical) pathway Two types of metabolic reactions: o Anabolic Reactions:      build up molecules Consume energy o Catabolic Reactions:      break down molecules Release energy Metabolism: obtaining energy Glycolysis and cellular respiration o Simple to describe: the reverse of photosynthesis! o The biochemical pathway of breaking down simple sugars (glucose) o A series of catabolic reactions o Extract energy to make ATP o Overall reaction C 6 H 12  + 6O 2  -> 6CO 2  + 6H 2 0 Glucose as fuel Need energy to create order How do we convert food to energy? The oxidation of glucose is exergonic:     ΔG = -686 kcal/mol o High energy molecule, breakdown occurs spontaneously) Given this, does glucose blow up in your cabinets or in your digestive tract? Why not? o Controlled energy release Stages of glucose oxidation Takes place in a complex set of 4 stages 1. Glycolysis 2. Oxidation of pyruvate 3. Krebs cycle (aka TCA, Citric Acid Cycle)
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4. Chemiosomosis/Electron Transport Chain 2, 3, and 4 called cellular respiration Mechanisms of ATP synthesis ATP synthesis is endergonic Energy from glucose oxidation used in the synthesis of ATP 1. Substrate level phosphorylation Uses organic phosphorus 2. Oxidative phosphorylation Uses inorganic phosphorus A denosine  T ri P hosphate Substrate level phosphorylation Start with an organic molecule that has a phosphate group (PO 4 ) Transfer that phosphate directly to ADP making ATP Occurs during glycolysis and Krebs Cycle Figure 7.4 Oxidative phosphorylation
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Bio_Lecture_7 - glucose Completeoxidation pyruvate...

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