emery_lecture_23 - Lecture 23 I. The landscape mosaic -...

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Lecture 23 I. The landscape mosaic - patch – a relatively homogenous community type within a landscape mosaic (ex: forest patch) - landscape – topographic and environmental features of a religion - ex: the number, area, and distance between mountains, valleys, deserts, islands, etc. - ecosystem – a community of interacting organisms plus the physical environment in which they live - landscape ecology – the study of the distribution patterns of communities and ecosystems, the ecological processes that affect those processes, and changes in the pattern and process over time II. Biogeography – the study of variation in species composition and diversity among geographic locations A. global – entire world: speciation, extinction and migration - ex: why more in tropics than temperate zones B. regional – smaller scale, defined by dispersal abilities of species: migration and extinction rates C. local or community: physical conditions and species interactions - local and regional scales connected by turnover - changes in diversity through community types To capture patterns: A. alpha diversity: within-habitat diversity (on local scale) – how many species found B. gamma diversity: regional species diversity - how many species in whole region (equal to or larger than alpha) C. beta diversity – between habitat diversity turnover or change in species composition as you move from one community type to the other B = gamma/alpha Example scales of diversity – distributed very differently where the entire circle = region
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emery_lecture_23 - Lecture 23 I. The landscape mosaic -...

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