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Chapter 1 1.12.11 - Classifying Matter NO Pure Substances...

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Classifying Matter All Matter Pure Substances Mixtures Can it be separated by a physical process? Compounds Elements YES NO Can it be broken down into simpler ones by chemical means ? NO YES 1.6
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Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes Physical Properties – characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance into another substance. Some physical properties n Color n Odor n Taste n Hardness n Density n melting/boiling temperature n magnetic properties
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Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes Chemical Properties – characteristics of a substance that can be observed when the substance undergoes a change in its composition. n Electricity + water (H2O) → H2 gas and O2 gas. n Iron (Fe) + oxygen (O2) → rust (Fe2O3)
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Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes Chemical Change – a change that alters the composition of the substance. n Combustion of wood in a forest fire n Digestion of food in the stomach Note: products have different physical properties than the original substance.
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Classifying Matter Matter : anything that occupies space and has mass Pure Substance : n only one kind of matter n cannot be physically broken down into different components. n Includes elements and compounds n On the particle level, all particles are the same
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Classifying Matter Elements : n Contain only one kind of atom n cannot be broken down into simpler substances by any physical or chemical means n listed in the periodic table
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Classifying Matter Compounds : n combination of two or more elements n in fixed proportions represented by the chemical formula CO2 CO Carbon di oxide carbon mon oxide 1C, 2O 1C, 1O n Can be separated into their individual elements chemically, but not physically
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Classifying Matter Mixture : n physical combination of two or more substances n may be present in variable amounts n can be separated by physical means n On the particle level, there are different kinds of particles
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Classifying Matter Homogeneous Mixture : n Substances are evenly distributed at the particle level n A sample taken from one part of the mixture is identical to that taken from any other part n Example: salt dissolved in water n Example: components of gasoline Heterogeneous Mixture : n Composition of the mixture varies from one region to another n Example: Salt mixed with sugar
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Classifying Matter Sugar (C6H12O22) Salt (NaCl) Diamond nickel lemonade sulfur dioxide Salt water Pond water US nickel
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Grou p Period The Periodic Table
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The Periodic Table Abundances of Elements
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The Periodic Table Abundances of Elements
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The Periodic Table The Periodic Table n An orderly arrangement of all elements n Order (numbering) relates to the subatomic particles making up each atom of the element n Elements in the same Group (column) behave similarly n Eg.
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The Periodic Table Naturally occurring forms of elements n Solids – most elements n Liquids – Hg (mercury) and Br2 (Bromine) only n Gases All Group 8A (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) Also H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2 n Note: these are ELEMENTS only, COMPOUNDS may also be solid liquid or gas
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