Chapter 1 Key - Chapter 1 Key 1 a b c d 2 a b 3 a b c 4 5 a...

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Chapter 1 Key 1. a. 1.5 x 10 3 m b. 9.58 x 10 -11 m c. 7.5 x 10 -6 m d. 1.5 x 10 5 mg 2. a. 85,000 c. .0050 b. 10,000,000 d. .00001 3. a. kL .567 1000L kL 1 x mL 1 L .001 x mL 567,000 = b. mg 1,275,300 .001g mg 1 x oz. 1 g 28.34 x oz. 45 = c. daL 22.7 L 10 daL 1 x mL 1 L .001 x oz. fl. 1 mL 29.57 x gal 1 oz. fl. 128 x gal 60 = 4. CO O 3 NO X SO x Pb PM 5. a. CO b. Ar, Rn c. N 2 6. .9% 9,000,000 ppb 7. 400 ppm 400,000 ppb 8. 21 liters of O 2 for every 100 liters of air 21 O 2 molecules for every 100 air molecules 21 grams of O 2 for every 100 grams of air 9. a. Toxicity: the intrinsic hazard of a substance b. Exposure: the amount of a substance encountered c. Importance for risk assessment: High exposure to non-toxic substances or very low exposure to toxic substances should be low-risk.
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High exposure to high toxicity substances is high risk. Both factors are needed to determine risk. 10. A very short exposure time, such as a single day, to a higher level of a toxic substance may still be fairly low risk. For exposure over a longer period of time, such as every day, the level of the toxic substance must be lower for the risk to remain low.
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