lecture 9 - Control of blood sugar levels by 2 hormones...

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Control of blood sugar levels by 2 hormones that work antagonistically Produced in pancreas o Iris of langerhans in tissues Beta cells produce insulin o Reduce blood sugar level o Causes target cells to store glycogen and convert it to animal starch Alpha cells produce glucagons (part of everyday glucose regulation) o Raises blood sugar level o Causes target cells in liver to break down glycogen to form glucose o Glucose is released Insulin brings sugar into cells so can be used Raises sugar level o Epinephrine—Raises blood sugar levels very quickly in an emergency o Cortisol—raises blood sugar level as well (over extended period) o Grown hormone Hyperglycemia – diabetes mellitus o Sugar in urine o Sugar spills over o Weight loss – sugar in blood not in cells where it can be used o Osmosis – excessive water loss o Type I – diabetes Insulin deficiency Juvenile diabetes Autoimmune disease – turns on self tissue and destroys beta cells in the pancreas Doctors taking longitudal samples – looking at antibodies against beta cells Evidence of autoimmune attack before diabetes is diagnosed o Type II Make enough insulin, not insulin dependent Cells don’t respond to insulin Insulin resistant – receptors involved (down regulated in some way) Hypoglycemia
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lecture 9 - Control of blood sugar levels by 2 hormones...

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