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chapter8 - Chapter 8 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing...

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Chapter 8 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing PowerPoint Lecture Slides Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Seventh Edition by Frederick J. Gravetter and Larry B. Wallnau
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Chapter 8 Learning Outcomes
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Concepts to review z- Scores (Chapter 5) Distribution of sample means (Chapter 7) Expected value Standard error Probability and sample means
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8.1 Logic of Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis testing is one of the most commonly used inferential procedures Definition: a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothesis about a population
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Logic of hypothesis test 1. State hypothesis about a population 2. Predict the characteristics of the sample based on the hypothesis 3. Obtain a random sample from the population 4. Compare the obtained sample data with the prediction made from the hypothesis If consistent, hypothesis is reasonable If discrepant, hypothesis is rejected
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Figure 8.1 Basic experimental situation
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Figure 8.2 Unknown population in experimental situation
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Four steps of Hypothesis Testing State the hypotheses Set the criteria for a decision Collect data and compute sample statistics Make a decision
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Step 1: State hypotheses Null hypothesis (H 0 ) states that, in the general population, there is no change, no difference, or not relationship Alternative hypothesis (H 1 ) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relationship in the general population
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Step 2: Set the criteria for decision Distribution of sample means is divided – Those likely if H 0 is true – Those very unlikely if H 0 is true Alpha level , or level of significance , is a probability value used to define “very unlikely” Critical region is composed of the extreme sample values that are very unlikely Boundaries of critical region are determined by alpha level.
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Figure 8.3 Division of distribution of sample means
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Figure 8.4 Critical regions for α = .05
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Learning Check A sports coach is investigating the impact of a new training method. In words, what would the null hypothesis say?
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