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chapter8

# chapter8 - Chapter 8 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing...

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Chapter 8 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing PowerPoint Lecture Slides Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Seventh Edition by Frederick J. Gravetter and Larry B. Wallnau

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Chapter 8 Learning Outcomes
Concepts to review z- Scores (Chapter 5) Distribution of sample means (Chapter 7) Expected value Standard error Probability and sample means

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8.1 Logic of Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis testing is one of the most commonly used inferential procedures Definition: a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothesis about a population
Logic of hypothesis test 1. State hypothesis about a population 2. Predict the characteristics of the sample based on the hypothesis 3. Obtain a random sample from the population 4. Compare the obtained sample data with the prediction made from the hypothesis If consistent, hypothesis is reasonable If discrepant, hypothesis is rejected

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Figure 8.1 Basic experimental situation
Figure 8.2 Unknown population in experimental situation

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Four steps of Hypothesis Testing State the hypotheses Set the criteria for a decision Collect data and compute sample statistics Make a decision
Step 1: State hypotheses Null hypothesis (H 0 ) states that, in the general population, there is no change, no difference, or not relationship Alternative hypothesis (H 1 ) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relationship in the general population

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Step 2: Set the criteria for decision Distribution of sample means is divided – Those likely if H 0 is true – Those very unlikely if H 0 is true Alpha level , or level of significance , is a probability value used to define “very unlikely” Critical region is composed of the extreme sample values that are very unlikely Boundaries of critical region are determined by alpha level.
Figure 8.3 Division of distribution of sample means

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Figure 8.4 Critical regions for α = .05
Learning Check A sports coach is investigating the impact of a new training method. In words, what would the null hypothesis say?

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