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# chapter9 - Chapter 9 Introduction to the t Statistic...

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Chapter 9 Introduction to the t Statistic PowerPoint Lecture Slides Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Seventh Edition by Frederick J Gravetter and Larry B. Wallnau

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Chapter 9 Learning Outcomes
Concepts to review Sample standard deviation (Chapter 4) Degrees of freedom (Chapter 4) Standard error (Chapter 7) Hypothesis testing (Chapter 8)

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9.1 The t Statistic: Alternative to z Sample mean ( M ) approximates population mean ( μ ) Standard error describes how much difference is reasonable to expect between M and μ . n or n m m 2 σ σ σ σ = =
z -score statistic Use z -score statistic to quantify inferences about the population. Use unit normal table to find the critical region if z-scores form a normal distribution When n ≥ 30 or When the original distribution is approximately normally distributed μ σ μ and M between distance standard hypothesis and data between difference obtained M z m = - =

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Problem with z-scores The z-score requires more information than researchers typically have available Requires knowledge of the population standard deviation σ Researchers usually have only the sample data available
Estimated standard error Use s 2 to estimate σ 2 Estimated standard error:

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chapter9 - Chapter 9 Introduction to the t Statistic...

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