Unformatted text preview: Motivation Part II
September 12, 2007 Previous Class
Focused on the "person." People are motivated to fulfill certain needs. Everyone has the same set of needs.
(E.g. Maslow's Hierarchy, ERG Theory) For certain people, some needs are stronger than others.
Needs for achievement, affiliation, power. A Different Approach
Process theories: What are the thought or cognitive processes that take place within the minds of people which act to influence their behavior? Expectancy Theory
Proposed by Victor Vroom in 1964. Central question: What determines the willingness of an individual to exert personal effort to work at tasks that contribute to organizational performance? To answer this question, managers must know 3 things. Expectancy Theory (continued)
Expectancy (Can I do it?): Probability assigned by an individual that work effort will be followed by a given level of achieved task performance. Instrumentality (Will I be rewarded?): Probability assigned by an individual that a given level of achieved task performance will lead to a work outcome. Valence (Do I care?): Value attached by the individual to a work outcome. Multiplier Effects
Motivation = E x I x V A zero on any of these dimensions means that motivation is zero. Multiplier effect requires managers to maximize expectancy, instrumentality and valence to achieve high levels of motivation. Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory
Expectancy Term Expectancy The I ndividual's Question "Can I achieve the desired level of task performance?" "What work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance?" "How highly do I value the work outcomes?" Mangerial I mplications Select workers with ability; train workers to use ability Formally make rewards contingent on performance. Identify individual needs, adjust rewards accordingly. Instrumentality Valence Beyond the "Person"
Situational Approach to Increasing Work Motivation Key Question: How does the situation or work context influence the extent to which people are motivated to complete job related tasks? Origins of the Situational Approach
Scientific Management 1911 (Frederick Taylor) What could be done to get people to do more work in less time? Studied individual movements of workers at steel mill (time and motion studies). Modern example: UPS--Walk to door at 3ft. Per second, knock, wait 30 seconds, leave. Hawthorne Studies (1927)
How to design work environment to increase productivity? Productivity improved after each change and remained high even after work environment returned to normal. Follow up study found that workers restricted their effort. Systematically varied illumination, length of work pauses, duration of the workday, work week, etc. How To Explain Hawthorne's Results?
Productivity rose simply because workers enjoyed the extra attention and feelings of importance made them motivated. Productivity fell because workers worried that, because their work was studied, management planned to increase work expectations. Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
Asked workers two questions: Think about a time when felt good about your job. Think about a time when you felt bad about your job. Hygiene factors: Salary, working cond. Motivator factors: Achievement, recognition responsibility. Hygiene factors prevent dissatisfaction, motivator factors increase satisfaction. Job Characteristics Theory
(Hackman & Oldham) 5 core job characteristics. A job high on these factors is "enriched." Skill variety: Requires different activities to complete job and draws on different skills. Task identity: Requires completion of a "whole" identifiable piece of work. Task significance: Job is important and makes meaningful contribution to the organization. Autonomy: Freedom, independence and discretion about how to carry out work. Job feedback: Employee can obtain direct and clear feedback about quality of work. Case Example: Citibank
Job enrichment program. Before: Bank office employees each handled a different step in financial transactions. Consequence: Dissatisfaction, boredom, errors, large backlog of work. After enrichment: Each employees assigned to small group of customers and handled entire transaction. Result: Work quality and motivation improved. Individual Difference Moderators
The 5 core job characteristics do not effect everyone the same way. Growth need strength: People low on this dimension respond with anxiety. Knowledge & skill: People who lack skill become frustrated in enriched jobs. Basic satisfaction: When hygiene needs are satisfied, employees respond positively. Social Information Processing Approach (Salancik & Pfeffer)
Individual needs, task perceptions and reactions are all socially constructed. Peers define what the critical aspects of the job are and how we respond to them. Empirical research found that both job characteristics and social information processing have significant, independent effects. Summary
To motivate people you must consider: Person: Needs, personality traits. Situation: Job design, peer influences. Interaction: Highest level of motivation will result when people are assigned, based on their traits, to appropriate jobs. ...
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- Summer '07
- expectancy theory, Core Job Characteristics, job characteristics, ERG Theory, achieved task performance