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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 3 PERSONALITY AND VALUES After studying this chapter you should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality. Describe the MyersBriggs Type Indicator personality framework. Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model. Explain how the major personality attributes predict behavior at work. Contrast terminal and instrumental values. List the dominant values in today’s workforce. Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture. Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. Most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits, such as shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid Another definition of Personality
Relatively stable pattern of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioral tendencies “Whether people first hear about the two kinds of perception and two kinds of judgment as children, high school students, parents or grandparents, the richer development of their own type can be a rewarding adventure for the rest of their lives.” –Isabel Myers Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Extroversion (E) Sensing (S) Thinking (T) Judging (J) vs. vs. vs. vs. Introversion (I) Intuition (N) Feeling (F) Perceiving (P) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Classifications combined into 16 personality types often shown in what is called a “type table.” ISTJ ISTP ESTP ESTJ ISFJ ISFP ESFP ESFJ INFJ INFP ENFP ENFJ INTJ INTP ENTP ENTJ Big Five Personality Dimensions
Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness to Experience Extroversion Careful, dependable Courteous, caring Anxious, hostile Sensitive, flexible Outgoing, talkative Major Personality Attributes Major Influencing OB Influencing Core selfevaluation Machiavellianism – degree to which a person is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance and believes that the ends can justify the means Narcissism – degree of sense of selfimportance and arrogance • Selfesteem – a person’s view of themselves • Locus of control – degree to which you believe you have control of your own fate Major Personality Attributes Major Influencing OB Influencing Selfmonitoring – adjust their behavior to external, situational factors Risk taking – willingness to take chances Type A Personality – excessive competitiveness and sense of time urgency Proactive personality – identify opportunities, show initiative, take action and persevere Personality and National Culture
A country’s culture influences the dominant personality characteristics of its population. Values
Represent basic, enduring convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence." Values in the Workplace
Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences Define right or wrong, good or bad Value system hierarchy of values Espoused vs. enacted values: • Espoused the values we say we use and often think we use • Enacted values we actually rely on to guide our decisions and actions Value Systems Represent a prioritizing of individual values Identified by the relative importance an individual assigns to such values as freedom, pleasure, selfrespect, honesty, obedience, and equality Rokeach Value Survey Rokeach Terminal values refers to desirable endstates of existence Goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental values refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values Contemporary Work Cohorts
Veterans Boomers Xers Nexters Entered the Workforce
1950s or early 1960s 19651985 19852000 2000 to present Dominant Work Values
Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career Work/life balance, teamoriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships Confident, financial success, selfreliant but teamoriented; loyalty to both self and relationships Ethical Behavior
Managers consistently report that the Managers consistently report that the action of their bosses is the most important factor influencing ethical and unethical behavior in their organizations. Hofstede’s Framework for Hofstede’s Assessing Cultures Power distance Individualism vs. collectivism Masculinity vs. femininity Uncertainty avoidance Longterm vs. shortterm orientation Individualism- Collectivism
Peru Portugal Taiwan Italy Nigeria India Mexico Korea Collectivism PR China Hungary Hong Kong United States France Japan New Australia Singapore Zealand Egypt Chile Low Low Individualism High Power Distance
High Power Distance
Malaysia Venezuela Japan U.S. Denmark Israel The degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in society Low Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance
High U. A.
Greece Japan Italy Italy U.S. The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance). Singapore Low U. A. Achievement-Nurturing
Japan China China U.S. U.S. France Chile Sweden Sweden The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well-being of others (nurturing) Nurturing Person-Organization Fit It is more important that employee’s personalities fit with the overall organization’s culture than with the characteristics of any specific job. The fit of employee’s values with the culture of their organization predicts job satisfaction, commitment to the organization and low turnover. Implications for Managers Evaluate the job, the work group and the organization to determine the optimum personality fit Find job candidates who not only have the ability, experience and motivation to perform but also possess a value system that is compatible with the organization’s. Summary
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Explained the factors that determine an individual’s personality. Described the MyersBriggs Type Indicator personality framework. Identified the key traits in the Big Five personality model. Explained how the major personality attributes predict behavior at work. Contrasted terminal and instrumental values. Listed the dominant values in today’s workforce. Identified Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2011 for the course OB 2011 taught by Professor Huyduong during the Spring '11 term at International University in Germany.
- Spring '11