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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTERS 5 & 6 MOTIVATION After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Outline the motivation process Describe Maslow’s needs hierarchy Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job Summarize the types of goals that increase performance Discuss ways selfefficacy can be increased State the impact of under rewarding employees Clarify the key relationships in expectancy theory Motivation Through Recognition Courtesy Sanova Panafric Hotel Panfric Hotel general manager David Gachuru (shown in photo giving an award to employee Matayo Moyale) motivates employees with good oldfashioned praise and recognition. What is Motivation? Motivation refers to the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior. Motivated employees are willing to exert a particular level of effort (intensity) for a certain amount of time (persistence) toward a particular goal (direction).
• • • Intensity – how hard a person tries Direction – one that benefits the organization Persistence – how long the effort is maintained Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it Must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment Will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction Place security above all factors and will display little ambition Theory Y View work as being as natural as rest or play Will exercise self direction and selfcontrol if committed to objectives Can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility Can make innovative decisions on their own Evaluating Maslow’s Theory
Need to Know Selfactualization Need for Need beauty beauty • Lack of support for theory • Values influence needs People have different needs hierarchies not universal Esteem • Maslow’s categories don’t cover all needs • Needs change more rapidly than Maslow stated Belongingness Safety Physiological Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation. They will be placating their workforce rather than motivating them. As a result, conditions surrounding the job, such as quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions, relations with others, and job security, were characterized by Herzberg as hygiene factors. Herzberg labeled factors causing dissatisfaction of workers as “hygiene” factors because these factors were part of the context in which the job was performed, as opposed to the job itself. In contrast, motivators are factors that are intrinsic to the job. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory If a manager wants to motivate people on their jobs, he should emphasize factors associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it, such as promotional opportunities, opportunities for personal growth, recognition, responsibility, and achievement. Cognitive Evaluation Theory Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation. Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation, while tangible rewards undermine it. Management by Objectives (MBO) Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals. Common ingredients:
• • • • Goal specificity Participation in decision making Explicit time period Performance feedback Self-Efficacy Theory Refers to an individual’s belief that they are capable of performing a task Ways selfefficacy can be increased:
• • • Enactive mastery – gain experience Vicarious modeling – see someone else do the task Verbal persuasion – someone convinces you that you have the skills • Arousal – get energized Equity Theory Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome). Then they compare their inputoutcome ratio with the inputoutcome ratio of relevant others. Four-Drive Theory
Drive to Acquire
• Need to take/keep objects and experiences • Basis of hierarchy and status • Need to form relationships and social commitments • Basis of social identity • Need to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information • Basis of self-actualization • Need to protect ourselves • Reactive (not proactive) drive (triggered by threat) • Basis of fight or flight Drive to Bond Drive to Learn Drive to Defend Features of Four Drives Innate and hardwired everyone has them Independent of each other (no hierarchy of drives) Complete set no drives are excluded from the model Four Drive Theory of Motivation
Drive to Acquire Drive to Bond Drive to Learn Drive to Defend
Social norms Person al values Past experience Mental skill set resolves competing drive demands Goal-directed choice and effort Mental skill set uses social norms, personal values, and experience to translate competing drives into needs and effort. Learned Needs Theory Some needs can be learned Need for achievement Need for affiliation Need for power • Desire for challenging and somewhat risky goals, feedback, recognition • Desire to seek approval, conform, and avoid conflict • Try to project a favorable selfimage • Desire to control one’s environment • Personalized versus socialized power Implications of Needs/Drives Theories Fourdrive theory • provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill drives • employees continually seek fulfillment of drives • avoid having conditions support one drive over others
• allow employees to selfactualize • power of positive experiences Maslow Offer employees a choice of rewards Expectancy Theory of Motivation
E-to-P Expectancy P-to-O Expectancy Outcomes & Valences Outcome 1
+ or - Effort Performance Outcome 2
+ or - Outcome 3
+ or - Valence: The anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome. Increasing E-to-P Expectancy Train employees Select people with required competencies Provide role clarification Provide sufficient resources Provide coaching and feedback Increasing P-to-O Expectancy Measure performance accurately Describe outcomes of good and poor performance Explain how rewards are linked to past performance Increasing Outcome Valences Ensure that rewards are valued Individualize rewards Minimize countervalent outcomes The Job Characteristics Model Proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions:
• • • • • Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Motivating Potential Score (MPS) MPS = Skill variety + Task Identity + Task significance 3 x Autonomy x Feedback How can jobs be Redesigned? Job Rotation or Crosstraining – the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another Job Enlargement – increasing the number and variety of tasks Job Enrichment – increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of the work Alternate Work Arrangements Flextime – allows some discretion over when worker starts and leaves Job Sharing – two or more individuals split a traditional job Telecommuting – work remotely at least two days per week Employee Involvement A participative process that uses the input of employees to increase their commitment to the organization’s success Employee Involvement Programs Participative Management – subordinates share a significant degree of decision making power with their immediate superiors Representative Participation – workers are represented by a small group of employees who participate in decisions affecting personnel Rewarding Employees Major strategic rewards decisions:
• • • • What to pay employees How to pay individual employees What benefits to offer How to construct employee recognition programs What to pay Need to establish a pay structure Balance between: A strategic decision with tradeoffs • Internal equity – the worth of the job to the organization • External equity – the external competitiveness of an organization’s pay relative to pay elsewhere in its industry How to pay: Variable-Pay Programs Bases a portion of the pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance PieceRate Pay – workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed MeritBased Pay – pay is based on individual performance appraisal ratings Bonuses – rewards employees for recent performance Variable Pay Programs (cont.) ProfitSharing Plans – organizationwide programs that distribute compensation based on an established formula designed around profitability Gain Sharing – compensation based on sharing of gains from improved productivity Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) – plans in which employees acquire stock, often at belowmarket prices How to pay: Skill-Based Pay Plans Pay is based on skills acquired instead of job title or rank Doesn’t address the level of performance, only ability to perform skill Flexible Benefits Allows each employee to put together a benefit package tailored to their own needs and situation Modular plans – predesigned packages to meet the needs of a specific group Coreplus plans – core of essential benefits and menu of options to choose from Flexible spending plans – full choice from menu of options Employee Recognition Programs Are in addition to extrinsic compensation systems Are intrinsic rewards Recognition is the most powerful workplace motivator • Can be as simple as a spontaneous comment • Can be formalized in a program Implications for Managers Recognize individual differences Use goals and feedback Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them Link rewards to performance Check the system for equity Summary
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Outlined the motivation process Described Maslow’s needs hierarchy Differentiated motivators from hygiene factors Listed the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job Summarized the types of goals that increase performance Discussed ways selfefficacy can be increased Stated the impact of under rewarding employees Clarified the key relationships in expectancy theory ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2011 for the course OB 2011 taught by Professor Huyduong during the Spring '11 term at International University in Germany.
- Spring '11