Foundations of team dynamics chap8&9

Foundations of team dynamics chap8&9 - CHAPTERS...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTERS 8 & 9 CHAPTERS FOUNDATIONS OF TEAM DYNAMICS Teamwork In the Securities Industry Paul Tramontano (2nd from left) and other professionals in the securities industry have formed teams to better serve clients. Tramontano heads a 12­person team (called the Topeka Wealth Management Group) at Citigroup’s Smith Barney. What are Teams? Groups of two or more people Exist to fulfill a purpose Interdependent ­ interact and influence each other Mutually accountable for achieving common goals Perceive themselves as a social entity Work Group vs. Work Team Work Group ­ A group who interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help one another perform within each member’s area of responsibility Work Team ­ Generates positive synergy through coordinated effort; Individual efforts result in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs Groups versus Teams All teams are groups Some groups are just people assembled together Teams have task interdependence whereas some groups do not (e.g., group of employees enjoying lunch together) Many Types of Teams • Departmental teams Production/service / leadership teams • Skunkworks Task force (project) teams Virtual teams Communities of practice • • • • Self­directed teams Advisory teams • • Why Rely on Teams • Make better decisions • Make better products and services due to more knowledge and expertise • Increase employee engagement Compared with individuals working alone, teams tend to: Team Effectiveness Defined Fulfills objectives assigned to the team Fulfills satisfaction and well­being of team members Maintains team’s survival Team Effectiveness Model Organizational and Team Environment • Reward systems • Communication systems • Physical space • Organizational environment • Organizational structure • Organizational leadership Team Design •Task characteristics •Team size •Team composition Team Effectiveness • Achieve organizational goals • Satisfy member needs • Maintain team survival Team Processes •Team development •Team norms •Team roles •Team cohesiveness Team’s Task and Size Task characteristics Team size • • • Better when tasks are clear, easy to implement • Share common inputs, processes, or outcomes • Task interdependence Smaller teams are better But large enough to accomplish task Levels of Task Interdependence High Reciprocal B A C Sequential A B C Pooled Low Shared resource A B C Shell Looks for Team Players Shell holds the 5­day Gourami Business Challenge in Europe, North America, and Asia to observe how well the university students work in teams. One of the greatest challenges is for students from different cultures and educational specializations to work together. Gourami session in Asia -- Courtesy of Shell International Ltd Gourami session in U.S.A. -- Courtesy of Shell U.S. Team Composition 1. Motivation • To perform task • To work cooperatively the team 2. Competencies • Skills and knowledge to perform the task Gourami session in Asia -- Courtesy of Shell International Ltd • Ability to work effectively with each other 3. Homogeneous or heterogeneous, depending on task requirements Gourami session in U.S.A. -- Courtesy of Shell U.S. Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Teams Homogeneous Teams Heterogeneous Teams Less conflict Faster team development Performs better on cooperative tasks Better coordination High satisfaction of team members More conflict Longer team development Performs better on complex problems More creative Better representation outside the team Stages of Team Development Performing Norming Storming Forming Existing teams might regress back to an earlier stage of development Adjourning Team Norms Informal rules and expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviors Norms develop through: • Initial team experiences • Critical events in team’s history • Experience/values members bring to the team Changing Team Norms Introduce norms when forming teams Select members with preferred norms Discuss counter­productive norms Reward behaviors representing desired norms Disband teams with dysfunctional norms Conformity to Team Norms 100 Day 12: Peer Peer pressure begins begins 75 Day 28: Day Employee has doubled performance Units Pressed per Hour 50 Day 1: Day Employee begins job with team with 4 8 12 Day 20: Day Employee begins working alone working 16 25 0 20 24 28 32 36 40 Production Days Team Roles Role ­ set of behaviors people are expected to perform in certain positions Belbin’s Team Role Model • Formally assigned or informally acquired based on personality preferences • Nine team roles ­ all needed for optimal team performance • People choose preferred role based on their personality • Some roles more important at particular stages Team Cohesiveness at Lighthouse Photo: Robert Hirtie. Courtesy of Atlantic Business Magazine & Lighthouse Publishing The staff at Lighthouse Publishing is a highly cohesive group that successfully keeps its much larger competitors off­guard. This cohesiveness has particularly come through when faced with new and unexpected challenges, such as new products or machine breakdowns. Team Cohesiveness Defined Photo: Robert Hirtie. Courtesy of Atlantic Business Magazine & Lighthouse Publishing The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members Calculative ­­ members believe the team will fulfill goals and needs Emotional ­­ team is part of person’s social identity Influences on Team Cohesiveness Member Similarity External Challenges Team Team Size Size Team Success Increasing Team Cohesiveness Somewhat Difficult Entry Member Interaction Team Cohesiveness Outcomes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Want to remain members Willing to share information Strong interpersonal bonds Resolve conflict effectively Better interpersonal relationships Cohesiveness and Performance Team Norms Support Company Goals Moderately high task performance High task performance Team Norms Oppose Company Goals Moderately low task performance Low Team Cohesiveness Low task performance High Team Cohesiveness How to Minimize Social Loafing Social loafing: a situation in which people exert less effort (and usually perform at a lower level) when working in groups than when working alone. Make individual performance more visible • Form smaller teams • Specialize tasks • Measure individual performance Increase employee motivation • Increase job enrichment • Select motivated employees Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. Explained the growing popularity of teams in organizations Contrasted teams with groups Identified four types of teams Specified the characteristics of effective teams Explained how organizations can create team players Described conditions when teams are preferred over individuals Defined social loafing and its effect on group performance Identified the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups ...
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