Communication chap10 - CHAPTER 10 COMMUNICATION After...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 10 COMMUNICATION After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Describe the communication process Contrast the advantages and disadvantages of oral versus written communication Compare the effectiveness of the chain, wheel and all­channel networks Identify the factors affecting the use of the grapevine Discuss how computer­aided technology is changing organizational communication Identify common barriers to effective communication Describe the potential problems in cross­cultural communication Blogging as Org Communication Sun Microsystems president Jonathan Schwartz says that blogs have a lot to offer as a communication medium in organizations Courtesy of Sun Microsystems Definition of Communication The process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people. Transmitting the sender’s intended meaning (not just symbols) is the essence of good communication Courtesy of Sun Microsystem Functions of Communication Control Motivation Emotional expression Information Other Functions of Communication Coordinating work activities Fulfilling the drive to bond Knowledge management Decision making Courtesy of Sun Microsystems Communication Process Model Sender Form message Encode message Transmit Message Receiver Receive encoded message Decode message Noise Decode feedback Receive feedback Transmit Feedback Encode feedback Form feedback Direction of Communication Downward – flows from one level to a lower level Upward – flows to a higher level Lateral – between people at the same level Interpersonal Communication Oral Written Non­verbal Organizational Grapevine Early research findings • • • • • • • Transmits information rapidly in all directions Follows a cluster chain pattern More active in homogeneous groups Transmits some degree of truth Email becoming the main grapevine medium Social networks are now global Public blogs and forums extends gossip to everyone Changes due to internet Grapevine Benefits/Limitations Benefits • • • • Limitations Fills in missing information from formal sources Strengthens corporate culture Relieves anxiety Signals that problems exist • Distortions might escalate anxiety • Perceived lack of concern for employees when company info is slower than grapevine Admiral Warns Staff of E-mail Faults Executives at Admiral Insurance are concerned that e­mail is making staff at the Welsh company less polite. Along with reminding employees of e­mail’s limitations, Admiral holds 'no email days’, encouraging employees to increase face­to­face communication. Courtesy of Admiral Insurance Benefits of Email 1. Preferred medium for coordinating work 2. Tends to increase communication volume 3. Significantly alters communication flow • Less face­to­face/telephone • More upward communication ourtesy of Admiral Insurance 4. Reduces some selective attention biases Problems with Email 1. Communicates emotions poorly 2. Impersonal medium 3. Inefficient for ambiguous, complex, novel situations 4. Increases information overload ourtesy of Admiral Insurance • reduces politeness and respect (flaming) Other Electronic Communication Instant messaging Blogging (web logs) • • • • More efficient than email • Allows simultaneous communication events • Real­time communities through clustered communication Seem more personal than large meetings Empower employees to share information Ability to archive information Nonverbal Communication Actions, facial gestures, voice intonation, silence, etc. Transmits most info in face­to­face meetings Influences meaning of verbal and written symbols Less rule bound than verbal communication Important part of emotional labor Automatic and unconscious Emotional Contagion The automatic process of sharing another person’s emotions by mimicking their facial expressions and other nonverbal behavior Emotional Contagion Emotional contagion serves three purposes: 1. Provides continuous feedback to speaker 2. Increases emotional understanding of the other person’s experience 3. Communicates a collective sentiment – sharing the experience Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering Selective Perception Information Overload Emotions Language Communication Apprehension Information Overload Episodes of information overload Employee’s information processing capacity Information Load Time Managing Information Overload Solution 1: Increase information processing capacity • • • • • • • • Solution 2: Reduce information load Buffering Omitting Summarizing Learn to read faster Scan through documents more efficiently Remove distractions Time management Temporarily work longer hours Thumbs Up to the Boss! In Australia, a co­worker asked Patricia Oliveira why she laughed when he gave the thumbs up that everything is OK. She explained that this gesture “means something not very nice” in her home country of Brazil. After hearing this, several co­workers gave the boss a lot more thumbs up signs! Mark M. Lawrence/Corbis Barriers to Effective Barriers Communication Communication Filtering Selective Perception Information Overload Emotions Language Communication Apprehension Current Issues in Communication 1. 2. 3. Communication barriers between women and men “Politically Correct” communication Cross­cultural communication Communication barriers between Communication Women and Men Women Men speak and hear a language of status, power and independence For many men, conversations are a means to preserve independence and maintain status Women speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy For many women, conversations are negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give confirmation and support Gender Communication Differences Men Report talk Gives advice Gives quickly and directly directly Conversations are Conversations negotiations of status negotiations Women Rapport talk Gives advice indirectly Gives and reluctantly and Conversations are Conversations bonding events bonding Less sensitive to Less nonverbal cues More sensitive to nonverbal cues nonverbal “Politically Correct” Communication In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others But eliminating words reduces options for conveying messages in the cleanest and most accurate form Cultural Barriers 1. 2. 3. 4. Semantics – words mean different things to different people Word connotations – words imply different things in different languages Tone differences – in some cultures tone changes depending on context Differences among perceptions – different world views Cross-Cultural Communication Verbal differences • Language Nonverbal differences • Voice intonation • Interpreting nonverbal meaning • Importance of verbal versus nonverbal • Silence and conversational overlaps ©Mark M. Lawrence/Corbis Cultural Context Cultural High­context High­context cultures Rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with others Low­context cultures Rely essentially on words to convey meaning A Cultural Guide 1. 2. 3. 4. Assume differences until similarity is proved Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation Practice empathy Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis Getting Your Message Across Empathize Repeat the message Use timing effectively Be descriptive © Photodisc. With permission. Active Listening Process & Strategies Sensing Sensing • Postpone evaluation Postpone • Avoid interruptions Avoid • Maintain interest Maintain Active Listening Responding Responding • Show interest Show • Clarify the message Clarify Evaluation • Empathize Empathize • Organize information Organize Guessing E-Mail Emoticons :-) :-} <:-) :-X :-j {} Happy Smirk Dumb question OOPS! Tongue in cheek Hug Knowledge Management Process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time Importance of Knowledge Importance Management Management Intellectual assets are now as important as physical or financial assets An increasing awareness that retiring workers represent a wealth of knowledge that will be lost if there are no attempts to capture it Well­designed KM system will reduce redundancy and make the organization more efficient Implications for Managers Greater certainty leads to greater satisfaction: • • Effective communication improves productivity and motivation Convey honest and accurate information during hiring process to reduce turnover Use multiple channels Be consistent with verbal and non­verbal Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Described the communication process Contrasted the advantages and disadvantages of oral versus written communication Compared the effectiveness of the chain, wheel and all­channel networks Identified the factors affecting the use of the grapevine Discussed how computer­aided technology is changing organizational communication Identified common barriers to effective communication Described the potential problems in cross­cultural communication ...
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