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ECE162-Lecture-23-Bipolar-Junction-Transistors

ECE162-Lecture-23-Bipolar-Junction-Transistors - ECE 162...

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ECE 162 FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROELECTRONIC DEVICES Lecture 23 BIPOLAR-JUNCTION TRANSISTORS Professor Hisham Z. Massoud Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Fitzpatrick Building, Room 3521 Duke University, Durham, NC 27708–0291 [email protected] https://courses.duke.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.1
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LECTURE 23 – TOPICS 1. Introduction 2. Integrated-Circuit Bipolar-Junction-Transistor Structures 3. Definitions 4. NPN Bipolar-Junction Transistor at Thermal Equilibrium 5. NPN BJT Bias Ranges 6. NPN BJT Operation in the Forward-Active Range ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.2
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1. INTRODUCTION William Shockley at Bell Labs submitted his patent for the junc- tion transistor on June 26, 1948, and the junction transistor Patent No. 2,569,347 was issued on September 25, 1951. Semiconductor devices in which both electrons and holes participate in the conduction are termed bipolar devices and for this reason the junction transistor is now more commonly called the bipolar-junction transistor (BJT) or, simply, the bipolar transistor. Shockley’s junction transistor patent included heavy doping near the contacts even though no junction transistor had yet been fabricated and demonstrated. The “existence proof” for the junction transis- tor was made on April 7, 1949, at Bell Labs with a Ge structure fabricated by Bob Mikulyak. ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.3
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1. INTRODUCTION Representation of the junction (bipolar) transistor in Shockley’s patent (2,569,347). N P N E B C R L ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.4
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1. INTRODUCTION The First Prototype and the Inventors ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.5
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2. INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT BJT STRUCTURES Junction Isolation ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.6
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2. INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT BJT STRUCTURES Junction-Isolated Bipolar-Junction Transistor ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.7
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2. INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT BJT STRUCTURES Trench-Isolated Bipolar-Junction Transistor ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.8
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2. INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT BJT STRUCTURES Dopant Profiles in the Bipolar-Junction Transistor Depth, x ( μ m) Dopant Concentration, N + d or N - a (cm - 3 ) Emitter Diffusion Base Diffusion Collector Epitaxial Layer Buried Layer 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 10 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 10 18 10 19 10 20 10 21 ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.9
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2. INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT BJT STRUCTURES Dopant Profiles in the Bipolar-Junction Transistor Depth, x ( μ m) Net Dopant Concentration, | N + d - N - a | (cm - 3 ) n + -Emitter Region p -Base Region n -Collector Epitaxial Layer W E W B W C n + -Buried Layer - 0 . 2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 10 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 10 18 10 19 10 20 10 21 ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.10
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2. INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT BJT STRUCTURES Dopant Profiles in the Bipolar-Junction Transistor Depth, x ( μ m) Net Dopant Concentration, N + d or N - a (cm - 3 ) N + d,E N - a,B N + d,C N + d,BL W E W B W C - 0 . 2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 10 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 10 18 10 19 10 20 10 21 ECE 162 Chapter 9 – Bipolar-Junction Transistors Lecture 23.11
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3. DEFINITIONS
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