EESA10 - EESAlO Human Health and the Enviroment Due Mar 29 5PM SHARP dropboxes located outside swarm Assignment 2 Student ll?§’4gfl/tf_yl7 T.A

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Unformatted text preview: EESAlO Human Health and the Enviroment Due Mar. 29 @ 5PM SHARP dropboxes located outside swarm Assignment 2 Student ll: ?§’4gfl/tf,_yl7 T.A. ‘ (circle) Use a word processor (Le. typed). No title page {use header instead) print on both sides to save paper. Assignments should have 25.4 mm margins, single spaced, and 12 point font Late assignments will not be accepted without a doctors note. Late assignments should go into the dropbox. lnadequate Marginal Adequate Good Excellent la Yellow Fever & Malaria Factors {paragraph} 1b Threats in N. America {1—2 sentences) 1: Malaria Hazard in Africa (paragraph) 1d West Nile Cases {1—2 sentences} TOTAL for question 1: E out of 8 lnadequate Marginal Ade are Good Excellent 23 Animals in Lab. Experiments [2—3 sentences} . 2b Dose ReSponse Curve {paragraph} 2 2 _ 2c LD 50 (paragraph) TOTAL for question 2: 7 out of 8 lnadequate Marginal Adequate Good Excellent 3a Greatest Risk to UV Exposure {paragraph} 0-1 1.5 2 2.5 (Eli-"3) 3b Lowest Risk to UV Exposure {paragraph} 0—1 1.5 2 2.5 3: Risk to Individual (2—3 sentences} 0 0'5 1 1‘5 3d Sunscreen on beach {1—2 sentences} 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 " . at x, .. TOTAL for question 3: 5 out of} '5; TOTAL OVERALL FOR ASSIGNMENT out of 2 ll Comments: Azhar Saiyed, 994801979, Mar 29 2010 TA: Smriti Das Page 1 of 5 _1__A_ Yellow Fever and Malaria are both ar,e"transmitted by mosquitoes and usually appear in regions with hot weather.“ Both diseases have same symptoms like High fever, chills and body aches. Both Malaria and yellow fever are not contagious meaning an infected person cannot directly transmit to another person. Malaria and yellow fever both target the same organ of the body which is liver. Yellow Fever is caused by Virus and Malaria is caused by Protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. “Malaria usually occurs in tropic or subtropic area, yellow fever occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. For malaria, the virus has an incubation periodéefj to 30 days; while for yellow fever, the incubation period is 3 to 6 days.” (HUmphreys, 2009, p. 1736)-1'7.7’~"-"’9 There are vaccines available for yellow fever but there are no vaccines present for malaria. / 13 The biggest reason why yellow fever and malaria are not a threat to people of North America is because of the climate of this region. As stated by Humphreys “Malaria can occur in any tropic or subtropic area, while yellow fever occurs only in sub-Saharan and tropical climates." (Humphreys, 2009, p. 1736) These kinds of climate are usually not present in North America. 1C Nchinda wrote that “90% of malaria deaths occur in Africa. The spread of malaria in Africa has been directly linked to climate and rising temperatures and many other factors.’f/(1998) Malaria can occur in any tropic or subtropic area, while yellow fever occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa. The climate of Africa is a significant factor for its wide spread throughout Africa. One of the other reason for wideSpread of malaria is the absence of widely available vaccines. “The high birth rate in Africa also leads to rapid increasejn the susceptible population under 5 years of age who are most at risk”. The economic conditionof people of Africa is also responsible for spread of malaria in Africa.”(N"chinda, 1998) Most of the people live in poverty and they can't afford proper health care to treat malaria. The socioeconomic conditions of many poor countries lead to a much reducecflealth budget for "the people of those countries. \El (IM- ' I. i .~ L i 1' kn- Azhar Saiyed, 994801979, Mar 29 2010 TA: Smriti Das Page 2 of5 1D West Nile virus is transmitted through mosquitoes. “Ambient temperature plays a very important role in the development of mosquito and transmission of virus. The warmer it is the more quickly the mosquito develops from egg to adult stage. Replication of the virus in the mosquito is also affected by temperature.” (Anderson and Harrington) Warmer temperatures increase virus replication, while cooler temperatures slow down replication. This is the reason for inCrease in number of..West Nile virus cases in people as the weather gets warmer —/" 2A Animal are used in toxicology experiments to avoid harm to humans. They are tested on to [provide safe and necessary products that humans require to use every day. -'A|though this is a controversial subject, without the testing products on animals, then the human race would be greatly affected by the harmful effects of chemicals and medicine. 52’ “is ---* 23 The dose—response curve, describes the change in effect on an organism caused /b-y’ differing levels of doses to a stressor after a certain exposure time..fi( dose-response curve is a simple X-Y graph relating the magnitude of a stressor to the response of the receptor (e.g. organism under study). Depending on which drug you use and which response you measure, dose- response curves can have almost any shape. However, in very many /" systems dose-response curves follow a standard shape, shown below/ htt : www.curvefitcom Introduction89.htm Azhar Saiyed, 994801979, Mar 29 2010 TA: Smriti Das Page 3 of5 The measured dose (usually in milligrams, micrograms, or grams per kilogram of body—weight) is generally plotted on the X axis and the response is plotted on the Y axis. For example, the response might be enzyme activity, accumulation of an intracellular second messenger, membrane potential, secretion of a hormone, heart rate or contraction of a muscle. Commonly, it is the logarithm of the dose that is plotted on the X axis, and in such cases the curve is typically sigmoidal, with the steepest portion in the middle as shown above. The stronger a particular substance is, $steeper this curve will be. / E The LDSO is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after specified test duration. A low L050 means it takes a small dose to kill half the subjects whereas a high LD50 requires a higher close to kill 50%. For example while both Cyanide and Strychnine are both toxic, LDSU for Cyanide is 6 mg/kg whereas for Strychnine it is 16 mg/kg. So given the same dose, Cyanide will more likely kill you and is therefore more toxic. Thus substance with a high LD50 is considered safer than one with a {M LD50_ (Reference to http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/ld50.html) 3A The dosage of applied sunscreen on the graph which corresponds to the greatest risk due to UV exposure is no dosage/The relative risk associated due to UV exposure by no dosage of sunscreen is about 41—43% The dosage of applied sunscreen on the graph which corresponds t “the greatest risk due to chemicals in the sunscreen is high dosage. he relative risk associated with chemicals in sunscreen by its high dosage applied is about 10% From the above two points the greatest risk associated is from UV exposure when no sunscreen dosage which is around 41-43% compared to the/risk associated by chemicals in high sunscreen dosage which is only around 10% E The dosage of applied sunscreen on the graph which corresponds to the least risk due to UV exposure is High dosage. The relative risk associate with UV exposure by high sunscreen dosage is about 3-4% /" Azhar Saiyed, 994801979, Mar 29 2010 TA15mriti Das Page 4 of 5 Fe dosage which corresponds to the least risk due to chemical in the unscreen is no dosage of sunscreen. The relative risk associated with chemical exposure from no dosage of sunscreen is 0% If you look just the individual risk and not the overall total risk then the greatest risk is associated with UV exposure by high sunscreen dosage which is about 3-4% compared to the risk associated with chemical exposure from no dosage of sunscreen which is 0% E The point on the graph/corresponds to the greatest total risk is when no sunscreen is applied/The risk from chemicals when no sunscreen is applied is 0% but risk due to UV exposure when no sunscreen applied is around 43%. So total risk when no sunscreen is applied = O + 43 = 43% The sunscreen dosage which corresponds to the least total risk is moderate dosage. The risk from chemicals when moderate dosage of sunscreen is applied is 5% and the risk associated with UV exposure when moderate dosage of sunscreen applied is also about 5%. So total risk when moderate dosage of sunscreen applied is 5 + 5 = 10% Total risk when no Sunscreen Dosage = 0+43 = 43% Total risk when low Sunscreen Dosage = 3+15 = 18% Total risk when moderate Sunscreen Dosage = 5+5 = 10% Total risk when high Sunscreen Dosage = 10+4 = 14% From the above results you can see moderated/0539's corresponds to least total risk. .32 Based on the data shown in the graph, next time i go to the beach, I would apply moderate dosage of sunscreen. The reason for choosing moderate dosage of sunscreen is that it corresponds to least----t:ota| risk by chemicals and UV radiation which is about 10%. Azhar Saiyed, 994801979, Mar 29 2010 TA: Smriti Das Page 5 of 5 References Anderson, R. R., & Harrington, L. C. (n.d.). West Nile Virus [Scholarly project]. In Htm.zé”ri)ww2. entomology. corn-6H. edis-fil/IedEnI/WesmiiZeFSJ’WestA-WQEQ hfml. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from http:fr'xwmfl.entomology.cornel1.edufMedEnthestNilcFSr’WestNileFS.html Eras, A. (1997). Yellow Fever and Malaria. In Encyclopediaeom. Retrieved March 28, 2010, from http:flu-WW.encyclopedia.eomr'doer'l GZ-253660080html Humphrey's, M. (2009). [low Four Once Common DiseasesWere Eliminated From The American South. Negleced Diseases, 28(6), 1234-1244. doi: 10.l377fhlthaff.28.6.l?34 Introducing doseresponse curves. (n.d.). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from http:r’fwwwcurvefit.eom.a’introduction89.htm Nchinda, T. C. (1998). Maiaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 398-403. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from Google Scholar. The MSDS llyperGlossary: LD-SO, 50% Lethal Dose. (2009'). Retrieved March 29, 2010, from hllpflwwvx-ailpi.eomfmsdsfrefflclSOJitml ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2011 for the course ENVIRONMEN EESA10 taught by Professor Silvajastovenovij during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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EESA10 - EESAlO Human Health and the Enviroment Due Mar 29 5PM SHARP dropboxes located outside swarm Assignment 2 Student ll?§’4gfl/tf_yl7 T.A

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