Lecture_6_Radionuclides - Radiation and Human Health...

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Radiation and Human Health
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Radiation and Human Health We can not escape radiation 1. Background radiation - Natural radioactivity in the Earth and by cosmic rays from outer space Can not be controlled 2. Manmade radiation - electronic products: X-ray machines X ray diagnostic Television sets Microwave ovens Radar devices Lasers Can be controlled
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Ionised radiation Non-ionized radiation Radiation and Human Health
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Ionised radiation
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How does ionised radiation cause health effects? Radioactive material that decay spontaneously produce ionizing radiation Strip away electrons from atoms (create two charged ions) Break some chemical bonds Alpha, beta particles, gamma and x- rays (differ in the amount of energy they have)
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Health effects from exposure to radionuclides 1. Stochastic health effects - Chronic Long term, low level of exposure Increase levels of exposure make these effects more likely to occur but do not influence the type or severity of the effect i. Cancer- uncontrolled growth of cells Damage at the cellular or molecular level ii. Changes in DNA- mutations Teratogenic (fetus most sensitive in 8-15 week of pregnancy, smaller head or brain size, poorly formed eyes, mental retardation) Genetic (passed from parent to child)
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2. Non-stochastic health effects - Acute Short term, high level of exposure Increase levels of exposure make these effects more severe i. Cancerous health effects, Yes or No ii. Radiation sickness (nausea, weakness, hair loss, skin burn or diminishing organ function, premature aging, death) Health effects from exposure to radionuclides
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Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, 1979 Chernobyl, former Soviet Union, 1986 Chernobyl accident had 10-20 times higher dose of exposure than Three Mile Island’s accident Nuclear power plant accidents
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The effect of different doses of radiation on the human body after acute, whole-body exposure
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2011 for the course ENVIRONMEN EESA10 taught by Professor Silvajastovenovij during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto.

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Lecture_6_Radionuclides - Radiation and Human Health...

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