Philippine-Hispanic-Literature.pdf - PA 111 HISPANIC...

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Unformatted text preview: PA 111- HISPANIC TRADITION IN PHIL. ARTS Philippine Hispanic Literature GROUP 8 Arguson, Cagape, De Dios, Garcia INTRODUCTION TO HISPANIC LITERATURE INTRODUCTION The Spaniards arrived in 1521 but their conquest did not start until 1565. ESTABLISHMENT AND CONSOLIDATION OF SPANISH CONTROL THROUGH 3 WAYS: Reduction of the people to submission through the use of military force, Resettlement of the people to organized towns under the church, and Conversion to Christianity and acculturation into Spanish-European thought MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO SPANISH ACCULTURATION WITH RESPECT TO LITERATURE: European Medieval Period (12th century) - served to be more useful for early missionary poets and succeeding friars Golden Age of Spanish Literature (17th century) Beneath this layer of hispanicized culture, however, the people’s native spirit persisted in their folkways and in their religious beliefs and practices. HISTORY OF HISPANIC LITERATURE IN THE PHILIPPINES 5 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT (MARINAS, 1974) WORKS OF THE SPANISH RELIGIOUS ABOUT THE PHILIPPINES (1593-1800) a. Arrival of the Spaniards in 1565 brought culture, imposition of Roman Catholicism, and language editors. b. Natives were not taught Spanish, but the bilingual individuals produced devotional poetry written in Roman script in Tagalog. 1 2 FORMATIVE STAGE (1800-1883) a. Filipino writers began to recognize the Philippines as a separate entity from Spain. b. Most of the works published during these years are poetry. 3 NATIONALIST STAGE (1883-1903) a. Ilustrados became the spokesmen of the grievances and aspirations of their people. b. Propagandist intentions and nationalist aspirations are reflective in published works. 3. Promoting Filipino nationalism in Spain 4. La Solidaridad; Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena (Fray Botod), Marcelo H. del Pilar, Pedro Paterno (Ninay), Isabelo de los Reyes “Don Belong” (founder of the workers’ movement in the Philippines as well as the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. 4 5 GOLDEN AGE (1903-1966) a. Ironically, the greatest portion of Spanish literature made by native Filipinos was written during the American commonwealth period. b. Claro M. Recto, Fernando Ma. Guerrero c. Hispano-Filipino literature started declining after World War II and the Battle of Manila. MODERN WORKS (1966-PRESENT) a. While there is a great decline in the output of Philippine literature in Spanish, there are still some writers who write in Spanish. b. Jose del Mar, Guillermo Gomez Rivera, Edmundo Farolan, Lourdes Castrillo Brillantes PRINTING & PUBLISHING History History In 1593, Father Domingo de Nieva built the first printing press in the Philippines with the help of Chinese printer Keng Yong. It was modeled after Chinese xylography or woodblock printing where in the wood was carved, inked and transferred onto paper. It was the first step to the publication of numerous books in the country (Rodriguez,2013). History History By 1606, movable type of printing in lead arrived in the Philippines. In 1610, the press was no longer owned by the Chinese. Religious orders sold it from one Order to the other because it was expensive. The Dominicans bought it first and in 1618, it was sold to the Augustinians. In1622, it came back to the Dominicans. History History Some basic information had to be included in any printed work. The front page must include the title, the author, the dedication and an illustration. At the bottom, the name of city, the printer and the year had to be indicated. History History The first book printed in the country, Doctrina christiana en lengua Española y tagala (Christian Doctrine in the Spanish and Tagalog Languages), 1593, featured a woodcut engraving of Santo Domingo de Guzman done by the Chinese convert Juan de Vera. History History All presses were owned by the religious orders; hence most works printed were either religious treatises or prayer books. The estampas or prints appearing in these publications featured portraits of saints and religious scenes, like the Crucifixion; smaller estampitas were also distributed to the towns folk during feast days. Many of these were later embroidered, framed, and hung on walls. History The first printed Tagalog grammar was Arte de la lengua tagala by Dominican Francisco Blancas de San José in 1610, printed by Tomás Pinpin INSTITUTIONS Ladinos Ladinos These writers published their work, mainly devotional poetry, in the first decade of the 17th century because of their fluency in both Spanish and Tagalog Among the earliest writers of note were Francisco de San Jose and Francisco Bagongbata. But by far the most gifted of these native poet-translators was Gaspar Aquino de Belen Propagandist Propagandist The “Propaganda Movement” was an important vehicle carried out by Filipinos in Europe and the Philippines. The generation of the Propaganda Movement produced a major wave of literary activity. The most important figure is that of Jose Rizal , who produced, among many other writings, Noli me Tangere (1887) and El Filibusterismo (1891) which remain, to this day, the most important novels written by a Filipino. Propagandist Propagandist Important writers of Rizal’s generation include Pedro Paterno (1858-1911), Marcelo H. del Pilar (1850-1896), Graciano LopezJaena (1856-1896), and Mariano Ponce (1863-1918). The organ of the Propaganda Movement in Spain, La Solidaridad (1889-1895), was the leading medium for 19th-century nationalist writings in Spanish. Revolutionist Revolutionist Following closely on the failed reformist movement, and on Rizal’s novels, was the Philippine revolution headed by Andres Bonifacio (1863 – 1897). His closest aide, the college-bred Emilio Jacinto (1875 – 1899), was the revolutionary organization’s ideologue. Both were admirers of Rizal, and like Rizal, both were writers and social critics profoundly influenced by the liberal ideas of the French enlightenment, about human dignity. Revolutionist Revolutionist Bonifacio’s most important work are his poems, the most well-known being Pag-Ibig Sa Tinubuang Lupa. Jacinto wrote political essays expressed in the language of the folk. Significantly, although either writer could have written in Spanish (Bonifacio, for instance, wrote a Tagalog translation of Rizal’s Ultimo Adios), both chose to communicate to their fellowmen in their own native language. GENRES OF PHIL. HISPANIC LITERATURE The coming of the Spaniards to Philippine soil also brought about the shifting of literature from the local myths, legends, and stories of natural phenomena to that of literature with religious overtones Religious prose Became an avenue for the Spaniards to spread Catholicism and propagate Catholic teachings across the new colony, and aid against the subversion of the locals DOCTRINA CHRISTIANA EN LENGUA ESPAÑOLA Y TAGALA Translation : (Christian Doctrine in the Spanish and Tagalog Languages) Author :Juan de Placensia Year : 1593 1st book printed in the country and done in xylography, written in 3 languages (Castillan, Tagalog, Baybayin). Includes Pater Noster (Our Father), the 10 Commandments, Ave Maria (Hail Mary), the catechism, etc. NUESTRA SENORA DEL ROSARIO Author : Fr Blancas de San Jose Year : 1602 Published in UST printing press with the aid of Juan de Vera. Includes biographical accounts of saints, novenas, and various discussions pertaining to questions of the catholic religion Notable authors from religious denominations FR. PEDRO PELAEZ, SJ. Wrote El Catolico Filipino a religious journal. He fought for the rights for Filipino clergy during the 19th century. FR. JOSE APOLONIO BURGOS Wrote "Manifesto que a la noble Nación Española dirigen los leales filipinos" to defend the heavy criticisms of the regular priests against the Filipinos of that time. He also able to publish "El Eco Filipino" in order to reiterate the call of reform to the Philippine government and hierarchy. FR. PEDRO DE BUENAVENTURA Wrote Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, the first dictionary for Tagalog Writers from the 5 regular orders AUGUSTINIANS (OSA) FRANCISCANS (OFM) JESUITS (SJ) DOMINICAN FRIARS (OP) AUGUSTINIAN RECOLLECTS (OAR) Religious poetry Adapted the pre-Hispanic Filipino art of narrative form to that of their own with topics of religious overtones. PASYON (indigenous form:"Ang Mahal na Pasión ni Jesu Christong Panginoon Natin na Tola) Translation : ("The Story of the Passion of Jesus Christ, Our Lord, which Rightly Shall Ignite the Heart of Whosoever Readeth"). Author : Gaspar Aquino de Belen Year : 1704 Overview: The retelling of the passion, death, and eventual resurrection of Jesus Christ usually commemorated in the holy week. Eventually, the pasyon narrative of the suffering of Christ was imbued with layers of nationalist, anticlerical and anticolonial meaning, with Rizal’s martyrdom echoing Christ’s death Secular prose signified the political, economic, and social changes that “opened up” the colony to the world. Became the vehicle for the nationalist propaganda movement fostered by the European-based illustrados Novels URBANA AT FELISA (1938) NINAY (1885) by Modesto de Castro, a popular novel from late 19th-early 20th century that gives emphasis on avoiding worldly pleasures, the value of purity in marriage, and other ideal lessons and values by Pedro Alejandro Paterno. It is the 1st novel authored by a native Filipino. FRAY BOTOD (1874) by Graciano Lopez Jaena, The metaphor of a bloated priest as the church as an abusive institution Newspapers DEL SUPERIOR GOBIERNO THE 1ST PHILIPPINE NEWSPAPER (1811) DIARIO DE MANILA (1848-52,1860-98) LA SOLIDARIDAD , THE ORGAN OF THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION (18891895) Rizal Novels NOLI ME TANGERE (1887) EL FILIBUSTERISMO (1891) Notable authors of revolutionary literature Pedro Paterno (1858-1911) Marcelo H. del Pilar (1850-1896) Graciano LopezJaena (1856-1896) Mariano Ponce (1863-1918) Jose Palma (1876-1903) Emilio Jacinto (1875-1899) Felipe Calderon (1868-1908) Secular poetry Rose in popularity along with publicly-performed poetic jousts called balagtasan. Despite Spanish rule ending in 1898, literary works in Spanish surged in the first decades of American colonization in the early years of the 20th century EL PARNASO FILIPINO EL RENACIMIENTO AND LA VANGUARDIA a collection of poems written by various Filipino poets at that time, is still now one of the most important works in the entire corpus of Philippine Literature in Spanish First book about the Philippines in Castilian that is purely literary and not didactic or religious. Spanish-language periodicals that spurred poetry in Philippine Literature in Spanish CLARO M. RECTO’S BAJO LOS COCOTEROS (1911) FERNANDO MA. GUERRERO’S CRISALIDAS (1914) CECILIO APOSTOL’S PENTELICAS (1941) Notable Notable poets poets Jose Vergara Juan Atayde (1838-1896) Fernando Ma. Guerrero (1873-1929) Cecilio Apostol (1877-1936) Jesus Balmori (1886-1948) Manuel Bernabe (1890-1960) Claro M. Recto (1890-1960) Flavio Zaragoza y Cano (1892-1965) Komedya The Mexican ballads of chivalry, the corrido, provided a model for secular literature. Verse narratives, or komedya, were performed in the regional languages for the illiterate majority. SIGNIFICANCES OF LITERATURE 1 2 PRESERVES CULTURE AND TRADITION. PROVIDES HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE. a. History is intricately intertwined along with the contradictions in the society at a given period. b. Literary forms are products of the different political institutions and ideological stances of the writers which are shaped by the social conditions. 3 NATIONALIST LITERATURE PRESERVES NATIONAL OPINION AND THOUGHT. a. Revolutionary use of literature as propaganda material to bring light to the situation and grievances of the people. b. Assertion of genuine nationalism reflected on their works. SPANISH INFLUENCE ON CONTEMPORARY FILIPINO LITERATURE BEFORE THE SPANISH CONQUEST the literature of ethnic Filipino groups was mainly oral most were the in the form of epics, songs, legends, riddles, and proverbs AFTER THE CONQUEST STARTED every written literature found was burned, thus rendering most native writing systems inoperable except the syllabaries of the Mangyans (Mindoro) and Tagbanua (Palawan) among a few others replacement with the Roman alphabet as primary writing system AFTER THE CONQUEST STARTED replacement with the Roman alphabet as primary writing system the teaching of the Christian doctrine became the basis for religious practices names were hispanicized by decree of then Governor-General Narciso Claveria Spanish became the literary language of this period periodicals at this time had religious tones European legends and traditions were assimilated in our songs, corridos, and moro-moros Fiction Jesus Balmori’s Bancarrota de Almas (1910) and Se Deshojo la Flor (1915) Antonio M. Abad’s El Ultimo Romantico (1927), La Oveja de Nathan (1929), and El Campeon (1939). Pasyon at Rebolusyon Pasyon at Rebolusyon (1979) by Reynaldo Ileto, attempts to reconstruct the categories of perception of "the masses" by using the religious performance of the suffering and death of Christ, the pasyon, as source material References CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art: Philippine Literature. (1994). Cultural Center of the Philippines. Macansantos, F. C., & Macansantos, P. S. (n.d.). Philippine Literature in the Spanish Colonial Period. Retrieved from 3/subcommissions/subcommission-on-the-arts-sca/literaryarts/philippine-literature-in-the-spanish-colonial-period/ References Mojares, R. B. (n.d.). Philippine Literature in Spanish. Retrieved from -3/subcommissions/subcommission-on-the-arts-sca/literary -arts/philippine-literature-in-spanish/?fbclid=IwAR0Xm4jEBXLZ49tA8qWQUgtHdcLr4luqAJr56YsdO1weOscWIxIMnaJIA ...
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