lecture_4 - Chapter 4 Amino Acids Acids Amino acid...

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Chapter 4 mino Acids Amino Acids • Amino acid structure – General properties – Peptide bonds l ifi ti d h t i ti – Classification and characteristics – Acid-base properties omenclature Nomenclature • Stereochemistry onstandard amino acids • Nonstandard amino acids – Amino acid derivatives D-amino acids 1 – Biologically active amino acids
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Amino acid • Backbone of an amino acid is composed of the N, C , d C and C • Amino acid structures and quences are written from sequences are written from left to right, starting with the N-terminus (amino) and finishing with the C- terminus (carboxyl) Please carefully note the charged ends (termini). t physiological pH the • The thing that differentiates each amino acid is the “R” At physiological pH, the ends of an amino acid are harged. Certain “R” 2 group •C is chiral, except in Gly c a ged. Ce ta groups will also be charged at pH 7.
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General properties • The backbone of individual amino acids are zwitterionic (i.e. has both a positively charged and a negatively charged group) • In addition, some amino acids have ionizable (i.e. charged) de chains side chains • Because of these ionizable groups (backbone and some side ains) amino acids can have a number of different charge chains), amino acids can have a number of different charge states he “R” group in an amino acid is called the side chain • The R group in an amino acid is called the side chain • An amino acid is often called a “residue” (i.e. an amino acid sidue) 3 residue) • There are 20 standard amino acids - they all differ in “R”
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eptide bonds Peptide bonds
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lecture_4 - Chapter 4 Amino Acids Acids Amino acid...

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